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Consistent with prior evidence about nonrandom charter school location, table 1 shows that TPSs in CSDs that ever have a charter school are more disadvantaged on a number of measures. At baseline, these TPSs have lower percentages of teachers with master's degrees and with more than two years of experience at the school, higher shares of free-lunch eligible students, black, Hispanic, and special education students, and lower shares of Asian and white students, as compared with TPSs in CSDs that never have a charter school. Furthermore, students in these schools are significantly lower-performing than students in CSDs that never have a charter. This suggests that TPS students in CSDs that never have a charter school are likely to be an inappropriate counterfactual, which is why they are omitted from my primary analyses.

Table 1.
Average Characteristics, Community School Districts with and without Charter Schools within One-Half and One Mile, AY 1998–99
Never Charter in CSDEver Charter in CSD
Total spending per pupil, US$ 11,086 11,805 
Instructional spending per pupil 5,886 6,164 
% teachers with master's degree 84.3 76.9 
% teachers >2 y experience in school 67.4 61.4 
Pupil–teacher ratio 17.7 18.1 
Enrollment per school 734 597 
English language arts z-score 0.255 −0.105 
Math z-score 0.320 −0.125 
Percent   
Free lunch 63.7 79.0 
Reduced-price lunch 9.7 5.6 
Black 15.0 44.2 
Hispanic 33.6 39.9 
Asian 22.6 6.2 
White 28.7 9.5 
Special education 6.7 7.4 
Language other than English at home 59.3 37.5 
Limited English proficiency 11.4 9.8 
Recent immigrant 10.7 5.8 
Number of schools 209 699 
Number of students 17,040 16,681 
Never Charter in CSDEver Charter in CSD
Total spending per pupil, US$ 11,086 11,805 
Instructional spending per pupil 5,886 6,164 
% teachers with master's degree 84.3 76.9 
% teachers >2 y experience in school 67.4 61.4 
Pupil–teacher ratio 17.7 18.1 
Enrollment per school 734 597 
English language arts z-score 0.255 −0.105 
Math z-score 0.320 −0.125 
Percent   
Free lunch 63.7 79.0 
Reduced-price lunch 9.7 5.6 
Black 15.0 44.2 
Hispanic 33.6 39.9 
Asian 22.6 6.2 
White 28.7 9.5 
Special education 6.7 7.4 
Language other than English at home 59.3 37.5 
Limited English proficiency 11.4 9.8 
Recent immigrant 10.7 5.8 
Number of schools 209 699 
Number of students 17,040 16,681 

Notes: Never charter in community school district (CSD) includes all schools located in a CSD where no charter school opened during the sample period. Ever charter in CSD includes all schools located in a CSD where at least one charter school opened during the sample period. Average characteristics are calculated only for those schools that were operating in the 1998–99 academic year. Bold indicates that the differences between never and ever charter in CSD schools are significantly different at the 0.05 level.

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