Skip to Main Content

Table 7 shows the relationship between charter school entry and school demographics and resources. Each row of this table is the result from a separate regression where a specific school input is the dependent variable and p-values are adjusted for multiple hypothesis testing using a Bonferroni adjustment. Among TPSs within one-half to one mile of a charter school, charter school entry leads to significant decreases in general education enrollment (approximately 16 students). In co-located schools, charter school entry leads to a significant 11.5 student decrease in special education enrollment, but no change in the percentage of special education students, which is consistent with general education and special education enrollment declining at roughly similar rates. In general, however, there appear to be no significant demographic changes in schools that might explain improved student performance.

Table 7.
Relationship between Charter School Entry and TPS Characteristics, Any Charter within One Mile with Pre-Trends, AY 1997—2010
Charter Within Dependent VariableCo-locatedAdj. p1/2 mileAdj. p1 MileAdj. p
School Demographics       
Enrollment −22.904 1.000 −15.054 0.464 −18.533** 0.020 
General education −11.397 0.000 −12.133 0.000 −16.580** 0.033 
Special education −11.505*** 0.001 −2.922 0.502 −1.953 1.000 
Grades 3—5 −30.041* 0.082 −13.354* 0.076 −9.454 1.000 
Percent       
Black −1.571 1.000 −0.774 1.000 −0.349 1.000 
Hispanic 2.794 0.364 0.951 0.489 0.336 1.000 
Asian −0.975*** 0.006 −0.824*** 0.006 −0.397 0.445 
White −0.110 1.000 0.712** 0.029 0.455 1.000 
Free lunch −0.517 1.000 −6.402*** 0.001 −3.733 0.333 
Reduced-price lunch 0.646 1.000 0.532 1.000 −0.297 1.000 
Special education 1.108 1.000 0.511 0.708 0.111 1.000 
Non-English at home 1.995 1.000 0.149 1.000 0.125 1.000 
LEP 0.023 1.000 0.324 1.000 0.157 1.000 
Recent immigrant −0.101 1.000 0.408 0.491 0.075 1.000 
School resources       
Log PPE 0.073 0.330 0.039*** 0.000 0.018 0.144 
Direct 0.080 0.341 0.043*** 0.000 0.020 0.131 
Instruction 0.089*** 0.002 0.044*** 0.000 0.020* 0.074 
Classroom teacher 0.050 0.569 0.034*** 0.000 0.014 1.000 
Other staff 0.353*** 0.003 0.083 1.000 0.056 1.000 
Contract instruction 0.284 1.000 0.174 0.543 0.062 1.000 
Support 0.033 1.000 0.055 0.136 0.046* 0.077 
Leadership 0.111 1.000 0.051** 0.011 0.014 1.000 
Pupil—teacher ratio −0.604 1.000 −0.332 1.000 −0.362 1.000 
Percent       
Teachers w/master's −2.196 1.000 0.763 1.000 1.075 1.000 
Teachers w/ >2 y in school 0.689 1.000 1.321 1.000 0.886 1.000 
Number of observations 6,611      
Charter Within Dependent VariableCo-locatedAdj. p1/2 mileAdj. p1 MileAdj. p
School Demographics       
Enrollment −22.904 1.000 −15.054 0.464 −18.533** 0.020 
General education −11.397 0.000 −12.133 0.000 −16.580** 0.033 
Special education −11.505*** 0.001 −2.922 0.502 −1.953 1.000 
Grades 3—5 −30.041* 0.082 −13.354* 0.076 −9.454 1.000 
Percent       
Black −1.571 1.000 −0.774 1.000 −0.349 1.000 
Hispanic 2.794 0.364 0.951 0.489 0.336 1.000 
Asian −0.975*** 0.006 −0.824*** 0.006 −0.397 0.445 
White −0.110 1.000 0.712** 0.029 0.455 1.000 
Free lunch −0.517 1.000 −6.402*** 0.001 −3.733 0.333 
Reduced-price lunch 0.646 1.000 0.532 1.000 −0.297 1.000 
Special education 1.108 1.000 0.511 0.708 0.111 1.000 
Non-English at home 1.995 1.000 0.149 1.000 0.125 1.000 
LEP 0.023 1.000 0.324 1.000 0.157 1.000 
Recent immigrant −0.101 1.000 0.408 0.491 0.075 1.000 
School resources       
Log PPE 0.073 0.330 0.039*** 0.000 0.018 0.144 
Direct 0.080 0.341 0.043*** 0.000 0.020 0.131 
Instruction 0.089*** 0.002 0.044*** 0.000 0.020* 0.074 
Classroom teacher 0.050 0.569 0.034*** 0.000 0.014 1.000 
Other staff 0.353*** 0.003 0.083 1.000 0.056 1.000 
Contract instruction 0.284 1.000 0.174 0.543 0.062 1.000 
Support 0.033 1.000 0.055 0.136 0.046* 0.077 
Leadership 0.111 1.000 0.051** 0.011 0.014 1.000 
Pupil—teacher ratio −0.604 1.000 −0.332 1.000 −0.362 1.000 
Percent       
Teachers w/master's −2.196 1.000 0.763 1.000 1.075 1.000 
Teachers w/ >2 y in school 0.689 1.000 1.321 1.000 0.886 1.000 
Number of observations 6,611      

Notes: All distance indicators are mutually exclusive. Co-located charter equals 1 for traditional public school (TPSs) in all years that a charter school is operating in the same building. Charter within 1/2 mile equals 1 for TPSs in all years that the closest charter school is located more than 0 but less than 1/2 mile from the TPS. Charter within 1 mile equals 1 for TPSs in all years that the closest charter school is located more than 1/2 but less than 1 mile from the TPS. Each row reports results from a separate school level regression with controls for 3, 4—6, and 7—9 years prior to charter opening (1—2 years prior is the omitted category), year effects, and school effects. Standard errors are clustered at the school level. Adjusted p-values (Adj. p) are p-values corrected for multiple hypothesis testing using the Bonferroni correction. LEP = limited English proficiency; PPE = per pupil expenditures.

***p < 0.01, **p < 0.05, *p < 0.1.

Close Modal

or Create an Account

Close Modal
Close Modal