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There is suggestive evidence that after charter school entry, parents report significantly higher student engagement and parents in co-located schools also report significantly lower levels of the school being unsafe (table 8). While none of the other indicators is statistically significant, in general they are positive and monotonically increasing with charter school proximity. Although no specific components of these indices are statistically significant, the direction tends to indicate improved perceptions after charter entry (see online Appendix table B.6).

Table 8.
Relationship between Charter School Entry and Parents’ Perceptions of TPS, Any Charter within One Mile with Pre-Trends, AY 2007—2010
Academic Expectations (1)Communication (2)Parent Engagement (3)Student Engagement (4)Respect and Cleanliness (5)School Unsafe (6)
Charter       
Within 1 mile 0.031 0.078 0.026 0.117* −0.007 −0.050* 
 (0.041) (0.075) (0.035) (0.069) (0.032) (0.030) 
Within 1/2 mile 0.019 0.054 0.007 0.098* −0.017 −0.013 
 (0.022) (0.044) (0.018) (0.051) (0.016) (0.012) 
Co-located −0.024 −0.040 −0.038** 0.013 −0.020 0.009 
 (0.021) (0.040) (0.018) (0.052) (0.013) (0.009) 
       
Observations 2,019 2,019 2,019 2,019 2,019 2,019 
R2 0.825 0.823 0.840 0.896 0.991 0.816 
Academic Expectations (1)Communication (2)Parent Engagement (3)Student Engagement (4)Respect and Cleanliness (5)School Unsafe (6)
Charter       
Within 1 mile 0.031 0.078 0.026 0.117* −0.007 −0.050* 
 (0.041) (0.075) (0.035) (0.069) (0.032) (0.030) 
Within 1/2 mile 0.019 0.054 0.007 0.098* −0.017 −0.013 
 (0.022) (0.044) (0.018) (0.051) (0.016) (0.012) 
Co-located −0.024 −0.040 −0.038** 0.013 −0.020 0.009 
 (0.021) (0.040) (0.018) (0.052) (0.013) (0.009) 
       
Observations 2,019 2,019 2,019 2,019 2,019 2,019 
R2 0.825 0.823 0.840 0.896 0.991 0.816 

Notes: All distance indicators are mutually exclusive. Co-located charter equals 1 for traditional public schools (TPSs) in all years that a charter school is operating in the same building. Charter within 1/2 mile equals 1 for TPSs in all years that the closest charter school is located more than 0 but less than 1/2 mile from the TPS. Charter within 1 mile equals 1 for TPSs in all years that the closest charter school is located more than 1/2 but less than 1 mile from the TPS. Models also contain controls for percent black, percent Hispanic, percent Asian/other, percent free-lunch eligible, percent reduced-price lunch eligible, percent of limited English proficient students, percent of recent immigrant students, percent special education, total school enrollment, year effects, and school effects. Sample includes only those schools with at least a 10 percent response rate to the parent survey in all four years. Analyses are weighted by response rate. Robust standard errors in parentheses.

**p < 0.05; *p < 0.1.

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