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Table A.1.
Subgroup Analyses, Effects of Charter Schools on ELA Scores, Any Charter within One Mile with Pre-Trends, AY 1997—2010
PoorSpecial EducationLEP
Black (1)Hispanic (2)White (3)Asian (4)Ever (5)Never (6)Ever (7)NeverEver (8)Never
Charter           
Co-located 0.097*** 0.011 0.142 0.033 0.049 0.003 0.073* 0.042 0.043 0.045 
 (0.037) (0.040) (0.112) (0.083) (0.031) (0.112) (0.038) (0.033) (0.054) (0.031) 
1/2 mile 0.040*** 0.016** −0.021 −0.054*** 0.017*** 0.008 0.015 0.018*** −0.008 0.018*** 
 (0.007) (0.007) (0.025) (0.017) (0.006) (0.019) (0.010) (0.006) (0.016) (0.006) 
1 mile 0.017** 0.012* −0.002 −0.010 0.005 0.016 0.011 0.007 −0.004 0.009 
 (0.007) (0.007) (0.022) (0.013) (0.005) (0.018) (0.010) (0.006) (0.013) (0.005) 
Observations 808,144 689,144 164,378 155,736 1,643,460 180,231 224,955 1,598,736 119,103 1,704,588 
R2 0.338 0.361 0.405 0.384 0.369 0.409 0.301 0.392 0.242 0.389 
PoorSpecial EducationLEP
Black (1)Hispanic (2)White (3)Asian (4)Ever (5)Never (6)Ever (7)NeverEver (8)Never
Charter           
Co-located 0.097*** 0.011 0.142 0.033 0.049 0.003 0.073* 0.042 0.043 0.045 
 (0.037) (0.040) (0.112) (0.083) (0.031) (0.112) (0.038) (0.033) (0.054) (0.031) 
1/2 mile 0.040*** 0.016** −0.021 −0.054*** 0.017*** 0.008 0.015 0.018*** −0.008 0.018*** 
 (0.007) (0.007) (0.025) (0.017) (0.006) (0.019) (0.010) (0.006) (0.016) (0.006) 
1 mile 0.017** 0.012* −0.002 −0.010 0.005 0.016 0.011 0.007 −0.004 0.009 
 (0.007) (0.007) (0.022) (0.013) (0.005) (0.018) (0.010) (0.006) (0.013) (0.005) 
Observations 808,144 689,144 164,378 155,736 1,643,460 180,231 224,955 1,598,736 119,103 1,704,588 
R2 0.338 0.361 0.405 0.384 0.369 0.409 0.301 0.392 0.242 0.389 

Notes: All distance indicators are mutually exclusive. Co-located charter equals 1 for a student in all years that a charter school is open in the same building as the first school he is observed attending. Charter within 1/2 mile equals 1 for a student in all years that the closest charter school is located more than 0 but less than 1/2 mile from the TPS he was first observed attending. Charter within 1 mile equals 1 for a student in all years that the closest charter school is located more than 1/2 but less than 1 mile from the TPS he was first observed attending. All models contain individual-level controls for gender, recent immigrant, lagged test scores, residence borough, grade, year, school effects, controls 3, 4—6, and 7—9 years prior to charter opening (1—2 years prior is the omitted category), and where appropriate, controls for race, free and reduced-price lunch eligibility, special education status, and limited English proficiency (LEP). Standard errors are clustered at the school-year level. Robust standard errors In parentheses.

***p < 0.01; **p < 0.05; *p < 0.1.

Table A.2.
Relationship between Charter School Entry and Teachers’ Perceptions of Traditional Public Schools, any Charter within One Mile with Pre-Trends, AY 2007—2010
Academic Expectations (1)Communication (2)Teacher Engagement (4)Respect and Cleanliness (5)School Unsafe (6)
Charter      
Co-located 0.509** 0.305 0.268 0.355** 0.107 
 (0.232) (0.191) (0.204) (0.181) (0.142) 
1/2 mile 0.089 0.028 0.100 0.127 0.121* 
 (0.114) (0.094) (0.100) (0.089) (0.070) 
1 mile −0.008 −0.004 −0.032 0.068 −0.010 
 (0.099) (0.082) (0.087) (0.077) (0.061) 
Observations 2,011 2,011 2,011 2,011 2,011 
R2 0.741 0.745 0.760 0.767 0.943 
Academic Expectations (1)Communication (2)Teacher Engagement (4)Respect and Cleanliness (5)School Unsafe (6)
Charter      
Co-located 0.509** 0.305 0.268 0.355** 0.107 
 (0.232) (0.191) (0.204) (0.181) (0.142) 
1/2 mile 0.089 0.028 0.100 0.127 0.121* 
 (0.114) (0.094) (0.100) (0.089) (0.070) 
1 mile −0.008 −0.004 −0.032 0.068 −0.010 
 (0.099) (0.082) (0.087) (0.077) (0.061) 
Observations 2,011 2,011 2,011 2,011 2,011 
R2 0.741 0.745 0.760 0.767 0.943 

Notes: All distance measures are mutually exclusive. Co-located charter equals 1 for traditional public schools (TPSs) in all years that a charter school is operating in the same building. Charter within 1/2 mile equals 1 for TPSs in all years that the closest charter school is located more than 0 but less than 1/2 mile from the TPS. Charter within 1 mile equals 1 for TPSs in all years that the closest charter school is located more than 1/2 but less than 1 mile from the TPS. Models also contain controls for percent black, percent Hispanic, percent Asian/other, percent free-lunch eligible, percent reduced-price lunch eligible, percent of students who speak a language other than English at home, percent of limited English proficient students, percent of recent immigrant students, percent special education, total school enrollment, year effects, and school effects. Sample includes only those schools with at least a 15 percent response rate to the teacher survey in all four years. Standard errors are clustered by school. All regressions are weighted by response rate. Robust standard errors in parentheses.

***p < 0.01, **p < 0.05, *p < 0.1.

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