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Table 1 displays post--high school college enrollment choices by race and ethnicity. Both black and Hispanic students are underrepresented in enrollment at elite state flagship universities, other selective state universities, Texas private universities, and out-of-state universities.7 Black students make up some ground in total enrollment at open-enrollment state universities, and Hispanic students are most likely to not enroll in any type of higher education. In this study, we examine whether these inequalities begin with college application behavior.8

Table 1.
Summary Statistics—–Racial and Ethnic Composition of High School Graduates by College Enrollment
Texas Flagship (1)Other Texas Public Universities with Selective Admissions (2)Texas Public Universities with Open Enrollment (3)Texas Private 4-Year College or University (4)Out-of-State 4-Year College or University (5)Texas Public 2-Year College (6)Not Enrolled (7)
White (non-Hispanic) 0.638 0.474 0.438 0.584 0.622 0.468 0.351 
Black 0.049 0.115 0.403 0.126 0.180 0.125 0.140 
Hispanic 0.188 0.337 0.136 0.234 0.139 0.369 0.482 
Asian 0.123 0.070 0.020 0.053 0.053 0.033 0.023 
Number of observations 23,836 66,744 14,233 21,155 18,660 128,341 217,738 
Texas Flagship (1)Other Texas Public Universities with Selective Admissions (2)Texas Public Universities with Open Enrollment (3)Texas Private 4-Year College or University (4)Out-of-State 4-Year College or University (5)Texas Public 2-Year College (6)Not Enrolled (7)
White (non-Hispanic) 0.638 0.474 0.438 0.584 0.622 0.468 0.351 
Black 0.049 0.115 0.403 0.126 0.180 0.125 0.140 
Hispanic 0.188 0.337 0.136 0.234 0.139 0.369 0.482 
Asian 0.123 0.070 0.020 0.053 0.053 0.033 0.023 
Number of observations 23,836 66,744 14,233 21,155 18,660 128,341 217,738 

Note: Based on enrollment in fall semester following high school graduation.

Sources: Authors’ calculations from Texas Workforce Data Quality Initiative Database, graduating student cohorts from spring 2008 and 2009. National Student Clearinghouse data from the 2008—09 and 2009—10 academic years. Universities with selective admissions have an applicant screening process and do not admit all applicants. Open enrollment universities admit all applicants who meet minimum requirements with no selective admissions processes.

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