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Table 2 displays summary statistics for all high school graduates and then disaggregated statistics by race and ethnicity. The graduates were 50 percent female, 44 percent eligible for free or reduced-price lunch (FRPL) and were, on average, 17.1 years old the September of their senior year in high school. In terms of college readiness, graduates average 2.5 semesters of Advanced Placement (AP) or International Baccalaureate (IB) courses. Twenty-four percent took AP English, 15 percent took AP mathematics, and 12 percent took AP science.9 The average graduate attended a high school that is 44 percent FRPL-eligible, 14 percent black, and 41 percent Hispanic. In terms of the high school's emphasis on college readiness, graduates on average attended schools where 11 percent of students earn college credit by passing an AP exam (by achieving a score of 3 or higher), 67 percent took SATs (or ACTs), and SAT (or converted ACT equivalent) scores averaged 976.

Table 2.
Summary Statistics—–Student and High School Characteristics by Race and Ethnicity
Black (1)Hispanic (2)Asian (3)White (4)All Graduates (5)
Demographics      
Female 0.518 0.507 0.488 0.494 0.502 
Age, years 17.12 17.16 17.03 17.11 17.12 
 (0.500) (0.526) (0.539) (0.434) (0.486) 
Free/reduced-price lunch eligible 0.503 0.626 0.251 0.134 0.435 
Limited English proficient <0.01 0.059 0.055 <0.01 0.036 
High school coursework:      
No. of AP/IB courses completed (semesters)a 1.56 1.94 6.72 2.90 2.50 
 (3.31) (3.66) (7.08) (4.59) (4.34) 
Took AP English language arts 0.182 0.200 0.449 0.277 0.241 
Took AP mathematics 0.074 0.096 0.437 0.184 0.145 
Took AP science 0.064 0.081 0.387 0.141 0.117 
No. of courses failed (semesters) 3.54 4.01 1.47 2.01 2.97 
 (4.67) (5.20) (3.22) (3.66) (4.54) 
High school exam exit (z-scores)      
English language arts −0.224 −0.187 0.313 0.213 0.008 
 (0.947) (0.958) (1.003) (0.975) (0.989) 
Mathematics −0.366 −0.212 0.660 0.243 0.008 
 (0.860) (0.928) (1.094) (0.982) (0.992) 
Science −0.34 −0.268 0.477 0.301 0.008 
 (0.872) (0.907) (1.049) (0.983) (0.991) 
Social studies −0.24 −0.243 0.379 0.261 0.009 
 (0.936) (0.949) (0.983) (0.962) (0.989) 
High school characteristics:      
% Free or reduced-price lunch eligible 0.490 0.587 0.300 0.305 0.439 
 (0.213) (0.247) (0.200) (0.175) (0.249) 
% Black 0.338 0.105 0.168 0.108 0.141 
 (0.237) (0.136) (0.131) (0.105) (0.163) 
% Hispanic 0.327 0.636 0.285 0.256 0.414 
 (0.193) (0.291) (0.186) (0.183) (0.292) 
% Earning AP credit 0.087 0.086 0.188 0.130 0.110 
 (0.110) (0.114) (0.141) (0.132) (0.125) 
% SAT tested 0.659 0.636 0.767 0.688 0.667 
 (0.195) (0.216) (0.182) (0.209) (0.211) 
Average SAT score 941.51 934.13 1031.51 1018.32 976.00 
 (100.02) (92.98) (88.93) (75.44) (96.19) 
Flagship scholarship programb 0.159 0.161 0.023 <0.01 0.087 
Number of graduatesc 67,215 188,835 19,405 213,486 490,707 
Percent of graduates 0.14 0.38 0.04 0.44 1.00 
Black (1)Hispanic (2)Asian (3)White (4)All Graduates (5)
Demographics      
Female 0.518 0.507 0.488 0.494 0.502 
Age, years 17.12 17.16 17.03 17.11 17.12 
 (0.500) (0.526) (0.539) (0.434) (0.486) 
Free/reduced-price lunch eligible 0.503 0.626 0.251 0.134 0.435 
Limited English proficient <0.01 0.059 0.055 <0.01 0.036 
High school coursework:      
No. of AP/IB courses completed (semesters)a 1.56 1.94 6.72 2.90 2.50 
 (3.31) (3.66) (7.08) (4.59) (4.34) 
Took AP English language arts 0.182 0.200 0.449 0.277 0.241 
Took AP mathematics 0.074 0.096 0.437 0.184 0.145 
Took AP science 0.064 0.081 0.387 0.141 0.117 
No. of courses failed (semesters) 3.54 4.01 1.47 2.01 2.97 
 (4.67) (5.20) (3.22) (3.66) (4.54) 
High school exam exit (z-scores)      
English language arts −0.224 −0.187 0.313 0.213 0.008 
 (0.947) (0.958) (1.003) (0.975) (0.989) 
Mathematics −0.366 −0.212 0.660 0.243 0.008 
 (0.860) (0.928) (1.094) (0.982) (0.992) 
Science −0.34 −0.268 0.477 0.301 0.008 
 (0.872) (0.907) (1.049) (0.983) (0.991) 
Social studies −0.24 −0.243 0.379 0.261 0.009 
 (0.936) (0.949) (0.983) (0.962) (0.989) 
High school characteristics:      
% Free or reduced-price lunch eligible 0.490 0.587 0.300 0.305 0.439 
 (0.213) (0.247) (0.200) (0.175) (0.249) 
% Black 0.338 0.105 0.168 0.108 0.141 
 (0.237) (0.136) (0.131) (0.105) (0.163) 
% Hispanic 0.327 0.636 0.285 0.256 0.414 
 (0.193) (0.291) (0.186) (0.183) (0.292) 
% Earning AP credit 0.087 0.086 0.188 0.130 0.110 
 (0.110) (0.114) (0.141) (0.132) (0.125) 
% SAT tested 0.659 0.636 0.767 0.688 0.667 
 (0.195) (0.216) (0.182) (0.209) (0.211) 
Average SAT score 941.51 934.13 1031.51 1018.32 976.00 
 (100.02) (92.98) (88.93) (75.44) (96.19) 
Flagship scholarship programb 0.159 0.161 0.023 <0.01 0.087 
Number of graduatesc 67,215 188,835 19,405 213,486 490,707 
Percent of graduates 0.14 0.38 0.04 0.44 1.00 

Notes: Summary statistics for graduates of Texas public high schools from 2008 and 2009. Standard errors are in parentheses for continuous variables.

aTotal number of Advanced Placement (AP) and International Baccalaureate (IB) courses completed (semesters). AP mathematics include the following subjects: Calculus, Computer Science, and Statistics. AP science includes the following subjects: Biology, Chemistry, and Physics.

bThe Century Scholars program at Texas A&M University began in 1999.

cThe sum of black, Hispanic, Asian, and white students does not add up to the total number of all graduates because there were 1,766 students who did not report their race/ethnicity or reported multiple races/ethnicities.

Sources: Authors’ calculations from Texas Workforce Data Quality Initiative Database, graduating student cohorts from spring 2008 and 2009.

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