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Table 6 displays regression results by college-readiness level for specifications that include both student college readiness measures and high school fixed effects. Thus, we are estimating within-school racial and ethnic differences for each qualification group. We again present our results for our two main outcomes of interest: application to any four-year university (panel A) and application to a flagship university (panel B), as defined earlier. For either outcome, the results for Hispanic students are remarkably similar to prior point estimates. At all college-readiness levels, a Hispanic student is less likely to apply to college than a similarly prepared white student within the same high school. These effects are statistically significant for all groups except highly qualified applicants to a flagship university. A highly qualified Hispanic student is 3.2 percentage points less likely to apply to any college than a white student, and a less-qualified Hispanic student is 6.1 percentage points less likely to apply to any college than a white student.

Table 6.
Ordinary Least Squares Regression by College-Readiness Levels for Applying to College
College Readiness Based on High School Exit Exam and Advanced Placement Courseworka
Panel A: Any Four-Year UniversityPanel B: Flagship University or Better
Highly Qualified (1)Somewhat Qualified (2)Less Qualified (3)Highly Qualified (4)Somewhat Qualified (5)Less Qualified (6)
Race and ethnicity       
Black −0.021 0.073* 0.136* 0.050* −0.000 −0.012 
 (0.017) (0.008) (0.011) (0.023) (0.010) (0.010) 
Hispanic −0.032* −0.032* −0.061* −0.022 −0.027* −0.040* 
 (0.010) (0.006) (0.009) (0.015) (0.006) (0.007) 
Asian −0.004 −0.004 0.004 0.073* 0.042* 0.002 
 (0.008) (0.007) (0.013) (0.012) (0.009) (0.013) 
Other demographics       
Free or reduced-price lunch (FRPL) −0.043* −0.059* −0.064* −0.074* −0.068* −0.041* 
eligible (0.010) (0.006) (0.007) (0.016) (0.006) (0.006) 
Limited English proficient (LEP) −0.119 −0.280* −0.257* −0.130 −0.166* −0.076* 
 (0.105) (0.038) (0.040) (0.111) (0.032) (0.027) 
High school coursework (college readiness)      
Number of AP and IB semesters −0.001 0.008* 0.013* 0.006* 0.016* 0.014* 
 (0.001) (0.001) (0.001) (0.002) (0.001) (0.001) 
Took AP English language arts −0.000 0.024* 0.033* −0.018 0.038* 0.032* 
 (0.017) (0.006) (0.008) (0.026) (0.007) (0.007) 
Took AP mathematics 0.030* 0.059* 0.067* 0.175* 0.110* 0.093* 
 (0.012) (0.004) (0.006) (0.017) (0.006) (0.007) 
Took AP science 0.010 0.018* 0.040* 0.041* 0.054* 0.053* 
 (0.007) (0.004) (0.007) (0.012) (0.005) (0.007) 
Total semesters failed −0.034* −0.039* −0.040* −0.059* −0.041* −0.025* 
 (0.005) (0.002) (0.002) (0.006) (0.002) (0.001) 
High school exit exam (z-score)b −0.004 0.032* 0.061* 0.044* 0.088* 0.093* 
 (0.006) (0.004) (0.006) (0.009) (0.004) (0.007) 
Constant 1.035* 0.475* 0.190 0.298 −0.091 −0.144 
 (0.155) (0.095) (0.145) (0.217) (0.110) (0.127) 
Number of observations 13,037 53,412 30,521 13,037 53,412 30,521 
Dependent variable mean 0.889 0.815 0.698 0.653 0.404 0.218 
Other controls       
High school fixed effects Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes 
College Readiness Based on High School Exit Exam and Advanced Placement Courseworka
Panel A: Any Four-Year UniversityPanel B: Flagship University or Better
Highly Qualified (1)Somewhat Qualified (2)Less Qualified (3)Highly Qualified (4)Somewhat Qualified (5)Less Qualified (6)
Race and ethnicity       
Black −0.021 0.073* 0.136* 0.050* −0.000 −0.012 
 (0.017) (0.008) (0.011) (0.023) (0.010) (0.010) 
Hispanic −0.032* −0.032* −0.061* −0.022 −0.027* −0.040* 
 (0.010) (0.006) (0.009) (0.015) (0.006) (0.007) 
Asian −0.004 −0.004 0.004 0.073* 0.042* 0.002 
 (0.008) (0.007) (0.013) (0.012) (0.009) (0.013) 
Other demographics       
Free or reduced-price lunch (FRPL) −0.043* −0.059* −0.064* −0.074* −0.068* −0.041* 
eligible (0.010) (0.006) (0.007) (0.016) (0.006) (0.006) 
Limited English proficient (LEP) −0.119 −0.280* −0.257* −0.130 −0.166* −0.076* 
 (0.105) (0.038) (0.040) (0.111) (0.032) (0.027) 
High school coursework (college readiness)      
Number of AP and IB semesters −0.001 0.008* 0.013* 0.006* 0.016* 0.014* 
 (0.001) (0.001) (0.001) (0.002) (0.001) (0.001) 
Took AP English language arts −0.000 0.024* 0.033* −0.018 0.038* 0.032* 
 (0.017) (0.006) (0.008) (0.026) (0.007) (0.007) 
Took AP mathematics 0.030* 0.059* 0.067* 0.175* 0.110* 0.093* 
 (0.012) (0.004) (0.006) (0.017) (0.006) (0.007) 
Took AP science 0.010 0.018* 0.040* 0.041* 0.054* 0.053* 
 (0.007) (0.004) (0.007) (0.012) (0.005) (0.007) 
Total semesters failed −0.034* −0.039* −0.040* −0.059* −0.041* −0.025* 
 (0.005) (0.002) (0.002) (0.006) (0.002) (0.001) 
High school exit exam (z-score)b −0.004 0.032* 0.061* 0.044* 0.088* 0.093* 
 (0.006) (0.004) (0.006) (0.009) (0.004) (0.007) 
Constant 1.035* 0.475* 0.190 0.298 −0.091 −0.144 
 (0.155) (0.095) (0.145) (0.217) (0.110) (0.127) 
Number of observations 13,037 53,412 30,521 13,037 53,412 30,521 
Dependent variable mean 0.889 0.815 0.698 0.653 0.404 0.218 
Other controls       
High school fixed effects Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes 

Notes: Robust standard errors (shown in parentheses) are clustered at the high school level. All regressions control for graduation year, gender, and age. Linear probability model regressions for high school graduates from 2008 and 2009. Panel A dependent variable is equal to one if the student applied to any Texas four-year university or enrolled at any four-year university within one year of graduation. Panel B dependent variable is equal to one if the student applied to a Texas flagship public university (UT Austin or TAMU), enrolled in a Texas flagship public university, or enrolled within one year of graduation at an elite four-year university that is ranked higher than UT Austin by Barron's. Enrollment data are available for all U.S. universities through the National Student Clearinghouse. IB = International Baccalaureate.

aCollege qualification levels are based on the average performance of entering freshmen on high school exit exams and Advanced Placement (AP) coursework completion at Texas state universities of varying levels of selectivity. “Highly qualified” is greater than the average entering freshman at the UT Austin (most selective state university). “Somewhat qualified” is less than average for UT Austin, but greater than average for the University of Texas at San Antonio (mid-range state university). “Less qualified” is less than average for UT San Antonio, but greater than average for UT El Paso (less selective state university).

bHigh school exit exam scores are a composite z-score of both English language arts and mathematics. AP mathematics include the following subjects: Calculus, Computer Science, and Statistics. AP science includes the following subjects: Biology, Chemistry, and Physics.

*Statistical significance at p < 0.05 level.

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