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Table 7 presents our regression results on what specific institutional attributes are appealing to students. We estimate the conditional logit model for all college applicants (panel A) and top 10 percent college applicants (panel B) across racial and ethnic groups.27 The conditional logit results are displayed as odds ratios of the change in the odds of applying to a campus based on marginal changes in a campus characteristic, ceteris paribus. Similar to prior work (B. Long 2004; Hoxby and Avery 2013), we control for tuition, college proximity, and academic match. Building on this model, our second set of covariates controls for social match, measured as the proportion of each minority race and ethnic group on the campus. Our third and final set of covariates controls for high school feeder patterns both for the whole high school and for students of the same race and ethnicity as the student.

Table 7.
Factors Associated with Applying to College by Race and Ethnicity—–Results of a Conditional Logit Estimation (Expressed in Odds Ratios)
Panel A: All College ApplicantsPanel B: Top 10% College Applicants
Black (1)Hispanic (2)Asian (3)White (4)Black (5)Hispanic (6)Asian (7)White (8)
Geographic proximitya         
Can commute (distance ≤ 60 miles) 4.407* 15.335* 5.485* 5.323* 3.698* 13.207* 4.100* 4.710* 
 (0.278) (0.953) (0.436) (0.338) (0.412) (1.138) (0.580) (0.314) 
Can visit home (distance between 61 and 250 miles) 2.929* 4.171* 2.905* 2.612* 3.121* 4.301* 3.909* 3.309* 
 (0.112) (0.176) (0.146) (0.072) (0.244) (0.220) (0.379) (0.158) 
College preparedness: Measures of SAT Matchb         
Own SAT 100—149 pts above campus mean 0.439* 0.506* 0.739* 0.653* 0.511* 0.526* 0.831* 0.772* 
 (0.015) (0.014) (0.040) (0.014) (0.041) (0.028) (0.068) (0.024) 
Own SAT 150—199 pts above campus mean 0.246* 0.302* 0.579* 0.462* 0.311* 0.341* 0.667* 0.653* 
 (0.010) (0.012) (0.048) (0.015) (0.031) (0.023) (0.066) (0.027) 
Own SAT greater than 200 pts above campus mean 0.053* 0.077* 0.203* 0.141* 0.082* 0.092* 0.340* 0.290* 
 (0.004) (0.006) (0.026) (0.007) (0.012) (0.010) (0.048) (0.018) 
Own SAT 1—99 pts below campus mean 2.249* 1.913* 0.965 1.271* 1.957* 1.792* 0.833 1.075* 
 (0.059) (0.047) (0.061) (0.035) (0.127) (0.086) (0.085) (0.038) 
Own SAT 100—149 pts below campus mean 3.259* 2.569* 0.794* 1.200* 2.788* 2.562* 0.793 1.146* 
 (0.121) (0.097) (0.082) (0.059) (0.284) (0.181) (0.102) (0.068) 
Own SAT 150—199 pts below campus mean 3.804* 2.768* 0.659* 0.965 3.073* 3.230* 0.685* 0.905 
 (0.158) (0.135) (0.090) (0.060) (0.353) (0.282) (0.111) (0.070) 
Own SAT 200 or more pts below campus mean 4.319* 2.501* 0.287* 0.507* 4.548* 3.570* 0.429* 0.731* 
 (0.252) (0.177) (0.057) (0.045) (0.651) (0.429) (0.084) (0.073) 
Campus racial demographics (prior year's freshman class) 
% Black enrolled on campus 6.566* 0.306* 0.208* 0.067* 4.280* 0.416* 0.302* 0.108* 
 (0.558) (0.023) (0.022) (0.003) (0.760) (0.041) (0.053) (0.007) 
% Hispanic enrolled on campus 0.442* 1.269* 0.799 0.129* 0.371* 1.187 0.943 0.129* 
 (0.037) (0.092) (0.105) (0.007) (0.057) (0.131) (0.183) (0.010) 
% Asian enrolled on campus 0.676 0.458* 294.081* 0.013* 1.865 0.354* 103.599* 0.030* 
 (0.140) (0.081) (102.809) (0.003) (0.664) (0.088) (49.354) (0.008) 
Feeder patterns of student's high school to college campus 
Number enrolled from same high school in prior year 1.029* 1.032* 1.031* 1.017* 1.016* 1.008 1.011* 1.007 
 (0.004) (0.006) (0.006) (0.004) (0.005) (0.007) (0.005) (0.004) 
Number graduated from same high school in prior year 0.996 1.002 1.026* 1.019* 1.047* 1.071* 1.060* 1.062* 
 (0.004) (0.005) (0.006) (0.007) (0.008) (0.009) (0.009) (0.009) 
Number enrolled of same race from same high school 1.004 0.989 1.016 1.017* 1.020 1.008 1.030 1.000 
 (0.009) (0.007) (0.015) (0.005) (0.011) (0.009) (0.024) (0.007) 
Number graduated of same race from same high school 1.109* 1.048* 0.981 0.996 1.081* 0.987 1.025 1.010 
 (0.017) (0.012) (0.012) (0.009) (0.028) (0.016) (0.020) (0.013) 
Number of observations 616,559 1,374,664 305,660 2,250,259 70,215 286,998 115,010 576,321 
Panel A: All College ApplicantsPanel B: Top 10% College Applicants
Black (1)Hispanic (2)Asian (3)White (4)Black (5)Hispanic (6)Asian (7)White (8)
Geographic proximitya         
Can commute (distance ≤ 60 miles) 4.407* 15.335* 5.485* 5.323* 3.698* 13.207* 4.100* 4.710* 
 (0.278) (0.953) (0.436) (0.338) (0.412) (1.138) (0.580) (0.314) 
Can visit home (distance between 61 and 250 miles) 2.929* 4.171* 2.905* 2.612* 3.121* 4.301* 3.909* 3.309* 
 (0.112) (0.176) (0.146) (0.072) (0.244) (0.220) (0.379) (0.158) 
College preparedness: Measures of SAT Matchb         
Own SAT 100—149 pts above campus mean 0.439* 0.506* 0.739* 0.653* 0.511* 0.526* 0.831* 0.772* 
 (0.015) (0.014) (0.040) (0.014) (0.041) (0.028) (0.068) (0.024) 
Own SAT 150—199 pts above campus mean 0.246* 0.302* 0.579* 0.462* 0.311* 0.341* 0.667* 0.653* 
 (0.010) (0.012) (0.048) (0.015) (0.031) (0.023) (0.066) (0.027) 
Own SAT greater than 200 pts above campus mean 0.053* 0.077* 0.203* 0.141* 0.082* 0.092* 0.340* 0.290* 
 (0.004) (0.006) (0.026) (0.007) (0.012) (0.010) (0.048) (0.018) 
Own SAT 1—99 pts below campus mean 2.249* 1.913* 0.965 1.271* 1.957* 1.792* 0.833 1.075* 
 (0.059) (0.047) (0.061) (0.035) (0.127) (0.086) (0.085) (0.038) 
Own SAT 100—149 pts below campus mean 3.259* 2.569* 0.794* 1.200* 2.788* 2.562* 0.793 1.146* 
 (0.121) (0.097) (0.082) (0.059) (0.284) (0.181) (0.102) (0.068) 
Own SAT 150—199 pts below campus mean 3.804* 2.768* 0.659* 0.965 3.073* 3.230* 0.685* 0.905 
 (0.158) (0.135) (0.090) (0.060) (0.353) (0.282) (0.111) (0.070) 
Own SAT 200 or more pts below campus mean 4.319* 2.501* 0.287* 0.507* 4.548* 3.570* 0.429* 0.731* 
 (0.252) (0.177) (0.057) (0.045) (0.651) (0.429) (0.084) (0.073) 
Campus racial demographics (prior year's freshman class) 
% Black enrolled on campus 6.566* 0.306* 0.208* 0.067* 4.280* 0.416* 0.302* 0.108* 
 (0.558) (0.023) (0.022) (0.003) (0.760) (0.041) (0.053) (0.007) 
% Hispanic enrolled on campus 0.442* 1.269* 0.799 0.129* 0.371* 1.187 0.943 0.129* 
 (0.037) (0.092) (0.105) (0.007) (0.057) (0.131) (0.183) (0.010) 
% Asian enrolled on campus 0.676 0.458* 294.081* 0.013* 1.865 0.354* 103.599* 0.030* 
 (0.140) (0.081) (102.809) (0.003) (0.664) (0.088) (49.354) (0.008) 
Feeder patterns of student's high school to college campus 
Number enrolled from same high school in prior year 1.029* 1.032* 1.031* 1.017* 1.016* 1.008 1.011* 1.007 
 (0.004) (0.006) (0.006) (0.004) (0.005) (0.007) (0.005) (0.004) 
Number graduated from same high school in prior year 0.996 1.002 1.026* 1.019* 1.047* 1.071* 1.060* 1.062* 
 (0.004) (0.005) (0.006) (0.007) (0.008) (0.009) (0.009) (0.009) 
Number enrolled of same race from same high school 1.004 0.989 1.016 1.017* 1.020 1.008 1.030 1.000 
 (0.009) (0.007) (0.015) (0.005) (0.011) (0.009) (0.024) (0.007) 
Number graduated of same race from same high school 1.109* 1.048* 0.981 0.996 1.081* 0.987 1.025 1.010 
 (0.017) (0.012) (0.012) (0.009) (0.028) (0.016) (0.020) (0.013) 
Number of observations 616,559 1,374,664 305,660 2,250,259 70,215 286,998 115,010 576,321 

Notes: Conditional logit estimates are reported in odds ratios (with student fixed effects) of the probability of application to thirty-one state universities. Robust standard errors for clustering within high schools. Sample includes students who graduated from a Texas public high school in 2008 and 2009 and applied to at least one Texas public university for admission in the fall following high school graduation. A small number of students (<1%) are omitted who were missing distance to college or SAT scores.

aDistance is measured from the student's high school to each college campus.

bDichotomous measures of SAT match (omitted group has SATs 0—99 points [pts] above campus mean). Specifications also control for in-state tuition. All college campus variables (i.e., enrollment, graduation, SAT, and tuition) are lagged one year to information the student would have as she entered her senior year of high school.

*Statistical significance at p < 0.05 level.

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