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Table A.1.
Summary Statistics by College Application Behavior
Submitted ApplyTexasApplied to
Submittedor Enrolled ata FlagshipAll
ApplyTexasa Four-Year UniversityUniversityGraduates
College application     
Submitted ApplyTexas 1.000 0.874 1.000 0.331 
Submitted ApplyTexas or enrolled at a 4-year university 1.000 1.000 1.000 0.379 
Applied to a flagship university 0.306 0.267 1.000 0.101 
Student demographics     
Female 0.547 0.545 0.529 0.502 
Age, years 17.03 17.03 17.02 17.12 
 (0.346) (0.350) (0.330) (0.486) 
White (non-Hispanic) 0.478 0.497 0.608 0.435 
Black 0.145 0.147 0.068 0.137 
Hispanic 0.311 0.293 0.206 0.385 
Asian 0.063 0.059 0.116 0.040 
Free or reduced-price lunch (FRPL) eligible 0.293 0.280 0.155 0.379 
Limited English proficient (LEP) 0.008 0.008 0.002 0.036 
High school coursework     
Number of AP/IB courses completed (semesters)a 4.82 4.86 8.45 2.50 
 (5.36) (5.41) (5.96) (4.34) 
Took AP English language arts 0.447 0.448 0.677 0.241 
Took AP mathematics 0.299 0.301 0.586 0.145 
Took AP science 0.235 0.235 0.442 0.117 
Total semesters failed 1.14 1.13 0.32 2.97 
 (2.53) (2.52) (1.04) (4.54) 
High school exit exam (z-score)b 0.435 0.444 0.966 0.009 
 (0.877) (0.886) (0.805) (0.990) 
High school characteristics     
Campus size 1,992.44 1,991.08 2,167.56 1,836.93 
 (943.93) (945.22) (890.66) (1012.26) 
% FRPL eligible 0.415 0.403 0.325 0.439 
 (0.263) (0.259) (0.236) (0.249) 
% Black 0.134 0.135 0.123 0.141 
 (0.167) (0.165) (0.134) (0.163) 
% Hispanic 0.410 0.395 0.332 0.414 
 (0.303) (0.297) (0.258) (0.292) 
% Earning AP credit 0.131 0.136 0.178 0.109 
 (0.130) (0.133) (0.149) (0.125) 
% SAT tested 0.728 0.730 0.764 0.667 
 (0.177) (0.178) (0.172) (0.211) 
Average SAT score 987.59 991.76 1022.09 976.00 
 (98.08) (97.83) (92.52) (96.18) 
Number of observations 162,271 185,742 49,580 490,561 
Submitted ApplyTexasApplied to
Submittedor Enrolled ata FlagshipAll
ApplyTexasa Four-Year UniversityUniversityGraduates
College application     
Submitted ApplyTexas 1.000 0.874 1.000 0.331 
Submitted ApplyTexas or enrolled at a 4-year university 1.000 1.000 1.000 0.379 
Applied to a flagship university 0.306 0.267 1.000 0.101 
Student demographics     
Female 0.547 0.545 0.529 0.502 
Age, years 17.03 17.03 17.02 17.12 
 (0.346) (0.350) (0.330) (0.486) 
White (non-Hispanic) 0.478 0.497 0.608 0.435 
Black 0.145 0.147 0.068 0.137 
Hispanic 0.311 0.293 0.206 0.385 
Asian 0.063 0.059 0.116 0.040 
Free or reduced-price lunch (FRPL) eligible 0.293 0.280 0.155 0.379 
Limited English proficient (LEP) 0.008 0.008 0.002 0.036 
High school coursework     
Number of AP/IB courses completed (semesters)a 4.82 4.86 8.45 2.50 
 (5.36) (5.41) (5.96) (4.34) 
Took AP English language arts 0.447 0.448 0.677 0.241 
Took AP mathematics 0.299 0.301 0.586 0.145 
Took AP science 0.235 0.235 0.442 0.117 
Total semesters failed 1.14 1.13 0.32 2.97 
 (2.53) (2.52) (1.04) (4.54) 
High school exit exam (z-score)b 0.435 0.444 0.966 0.009 
 (0.877) (0.886) (0.805) (0.990) 
High school characteristics     
Campus size 1,992.44 1,991.08 2,167.56 1,836.93 
 (943.93) (945.22) (890.66) (1012.26) 
% FRPL eligible 0.415 0.403 0.325 0.439 
 (0.263) (0.259) (0.236) (0.249) 
% Black 0.134 0.135 0.123 0.141 
 (0.167) (0.165) (0.134) (0.163) 
% Hispanic 0.410 0.395 0.332 0.414 
 (0.303) (0.297) (0.258) (0.292) 
% Earning AP credit 0.131 0.136 0.178 0.109 
 (0.130) (0.133) (0.149) (0.125) 
% SAT tested 0.728 0.730 0.764 0.667 
 (0.177) (0.178) (0.172) (0.211) 
Average SAT score 987.59 991.76 1022.09 976.00 
 (98.08) (97.83) (92.52) (96.18) 
Number of observations 162,271 185,742 49,580 490,561 

Notes: Summary statistics for all graduates of Texas public high schools from 2008 and 2009. Standard errors are in parentheses for continuous variables.

aTotal number of Advanced Placement (AP) and International Baccalaureate (IB) courses completed (semesters).

bHigh school exit exam scores are a composite z-score of both English language arts and mathematics.

Sources: Authors’ calculations from Texas Workforce Data Quality Initiative Database, graduating student cohorts from spring 2008 and 2009. National Student Clearinghouse data from the 2008—09 and 2009—10 academic years.

Table A.2.
Ordinary Least Squares Regression Results for Applying to College, Excluding from the Analysis Historically Black Colleges and Universities
Dependent Variable: Any Four-Year University
(1)(2)(3)(4)(5)
Race and ethnicity      
Black −0.012 0.092* 0.106* 0.109* 0.106* 
 (0.007) (0.006) (0.004) (0.004) (0.004) 
Hispanic −0.077* −0.003 −0.061* −0.060* −0.061* 
 (0.009) (0.007) (0.003) (0.003) (0.003) 
Asian 0.177* 0.017* −0.004 −0.019* −0.004 
 (0.009) (0.009) (0.007) (0.006) (0.007) 
Other demographics      
Free or reduced-price lunch (FRPL) eligible −0.114* −0.047* −0.052* −0.053* −0.052* 
 (0.006) (0.005) (0.002) (0.002) (0.002) 
Limited English proficient (LEP) −0.203* −0.095* −0.096* −0.096* −0.096* 
 (0.006) (0.006) (0.006) (0.005) (0.006) 
High school coursework (college readiness)     
Number of AP and IB semesters  0.014* 0.011* 0.013* 0.011* 
  (0.001) (0.001) (0.001) (0.001) 
Took AP English language arts  0.132* 0.130* 0.138* 0.130* 
  (0.007) (0.006) (0.004) (0.005) 
Took AP mathematics  0.122* 0.123* 0.117* 0.123* 
  (0.005) (0.004) (0.004) (0.004) 
Took AP science  0.051* 0.047* 0.048* 0.048* 
  (0.006) (0.005) (0.004) (0.005) 
Total semesters failed  −0.019* −0.018* −0.020* −0.018* 
  (0.001) (0.000) (0.000) (0.000) 
High school exit exam (z-score)a  0.079* 0.071* 0.067* 0.071* 
  (0.002) (0.001) (0.001) (0.001) 
Geographic proximityb      
Distance to nearest university (100 miles)     −0.049 
     (0.031) 
Distance squared     0.018 
     (0.028) 
Number of observations 427,300 427,300 427,300 427,300 427,300 
Other controls      
High school characteristicsc   Yes  Yes 
High school fixed effects    Yes  
Dependent Variable: Any Four-Year University
(1)(2)(3)(4)(5)
Race and ethnicity      
Black −0.012 0.092* 0.106* 0.109* 0.106* 
 (0.007) (0.006) (0.004) (0.004) (0.004) 
Hispanic −0.077* −0.003 −0.061* −0.060* −0.061* 
 (0.009) (0.007) (0.003) (0.003) (0.003) 
Asian 0.177* 0.017* −0.004 −0.019* −0.004 
 (0.009) (0.009) (0.007) (0.006) (0.007) 
Other demographics      
Free or reduced-price lunch (FRPL) eligible −0.114* −0.047* −0.052* −0.053* −0.052* 
 (0.006) (0.005) (0.002) (0.002) (0.002) 
Limited English proficient (LEP) −0.203* −0.095* −0.096* −0.096* −0.096* 
 (0.006) (0.006) (0.006) (0.005) (0.006) 
High school coursework (college readiness)     
Number of AP and IB semesters  0.014* 0.011* 0.013* 0.011* 
  (0.001) (0.001) (0.001) (0.001) 
Took AP English language arts  0.132* 0.130* 0.138* 0.130* 
  (0.007) (0.006) (0.004) (0.005) 
Took AP mathematics  0.122* 0.123* 0.117* 0.123* 
  (0.005) (0.004) (0.004) (0.004) 
Took AP science  0.051* 0.047* 0.048* 0.048* 
  (0.006) (0.005) (0.004) (0.005) 
Total semesters failed  −0.019* −0.018* −0.020* −0.018* 
  (0.001) (0.000) (0.000) (0.000) 
High school exit exam (z-score)a  0.079* 0.071* 0.067* 0.071* 
  (0.002) (0.001) (0.001) (0.001) 
Geographic proximityb      
Distance to nearest university (100 miles)     −0.049 
     (0.031) 
Distance squared     0.018 
     (0.028) 
Number of observations 427,300 427,300 427,300 427,300 427,300 
Other controls      
High school characteristicsc   Yes  Yes 
High school fixed effects    Yes  

Notes: Robust standard errors (shown in parentheses) are clustered at the high school level. Regressions also control for graduation year, gender, and age. Linear probability models for high school graduates from 2008 and 2009. Dependent variable is equal to one if the student applied to any Texas four-year university or enrolled at any four-year university within one year of graduation. Enrollment data are available for all U.S. universities through the National Student Clearinghouse. AP = Advanced Placement; IB = International Baccalaureate.

aHigh school exit exam scores are a composite z-score of both English language arts and mathematics.

bThe distance variables are generated using longitude and latitude to compute the distance between all high schools and the flagship public institutions in Texas.

cCharacteristics include logged enrollment, percent Free/reduced-price lunch eligible, percent black, percent Hispanic, lagged measures of percent of graduates entering four-year colleges, percent earning AP credit, percent SAT tested, and Flagship scholarship program.

*Statistical significance at p < 0.05 level.

Table A.3.
Factors Associated with Applying to College by Family Income and Race/Ethnicity—–Results of a Conditional Logit Estimation (Expressed in Odds Ratios)
Panel A: Low Income (<$40k)Panel B: High Income (>$80k)
BlackHispanicAsianWhiteBlackHispanicAsianWhite
(1)(2)(3)(4)(5)(6)(7)(8)
Geographic proximitya         
Can commute (distance ≤ 60 miles) 5.458* 19.365* 8.378* 11.779* 2.761* 6.581* 3.888* 3.491* 
 (0.395) (1.327) (0.858) (0.785) (0.256) (0.518) (0.455) (0.226) 
Can visit home (distance between 61 and 250 miles) 3.246* 4.688* 3.319* 3.469* 2.352* 3.036* 2.928* 2.283* 
 (0.155) (0.253) (0.262) (0.139) (0.128) (0.141) (0.218) (0.065) 
College preparedness: Measures of SAT Matchb         
Own SAT 100—149 pts above campus mean 0.441* 0.495* 0.535* 0.613* 0.450* 0.579* 0.897 0.675* 
 (0.021) (0.021) (0.048) (0.023) (0.032) (0.029) (0.068) (0.018) 
Own SAT 150—199 pts above campus mean 0.255* 0.308* 0.350* 0.388* 0.269* 0.375* 0.926 0.515* 
 (0.015) (0.017) (0.040) (0.019) (0.026) (0.024) (0.094) (0.019) 
Own SAT greater than 200 pts above campus mean 0.069* 0.102* 0.078* 0.113* 0.056* 0.102* 0.427* 0.171* 
 (0.007) (0.009) (0.012) (0.008) (0.008) (0.011) (0.057) (0.010) 
Own SAT 1—99 pts below campus mean 2.279* 1.960* 1.524* 1.589* 2.045* 1.499* 0.625* 1.115* 
 (0.074) (0.059) (0.109) (0.054) (0.119) (0.073) (0.056) (0.036) 
Own SAT 100—149 pts below campus mean 3.196* 2.795* 1.599* 1.822* 2.730* 1.641* 0.391* 0.972 
 (0.132) (0.123) (0.185) (0.099) (0.224) (0.130) (0.054) (0.057) 
Own SAT 150—199 pts below campus mean 3.896* 2.984* 1.601* 1.618* 2.694* 1.537* 0.261* 0.743* 
 (0.176) (0.163) (0.230) (0.106) (0.280) (0.142) (0.051) (0.056) 
Own SAT 200 or more pts below campus mean 4.776* 3.139* 1.255 1.297* 2.316* 1.003 0.063* 0.314* 
 (0.275) (0.231) (0.238) (0.111) (0.308) (0.127) (0.017) (0.033) 
Campus racial demographics (prior year's freshman class)        
% Black enrolled on campus 7.646* 0.350* 0.402* 0.079* 3.790* 0.169* 0.142* 0.068* 
 (0.664) (0.031) (0.061) (0.007) (0.447) (0.016) (0.017) (0.003) 
% Hispanic enrolled on campus 0.396* 1.333* 1.669* 0.190* 0.441* 0.721* 0.550* 0.101* 
 (0.040) (0.127) (0.302) (0.012) (0.051) (0.062) (0.102) (0.006) 
% Asian enrolled on campus 0.693 0.752 257.298* 0.003* 1.325 0.316* 291.763* 0.031* 
 (0.160) (0.151) (117.235) (0.001) (0.397) (0.081) (120.375) (0.009) 
Feeder patterns of student's high school to college campus       
Number enrolled from same high school in prior year 1.029* 1.043* 1.038* 1.026* 1.026* 1.030* 1.024* 1.012* 
 (0.005) (0.005) (0.006) (0.005) (0.004) (0.006) (0.006) (0.005) 
Number graduated from same high school in prior year 0.991 0.992 1.015* 1.015* 1.004 1.008 1.035* 1.018* 
 (0.005) (0.005) (0.006) (0.008) (0.004) (0.005) (0.007) (0.007) 
Number enrolled of same race from same high school 1.000 0.985* 1.009 1.005 1.017 0.969* 1.026* 1.021* 
 (0.009) (0.007) (0.016) (0.007) (0.011) (0.007) (0.013) (0.006) 
Number graduated of same race from same high school 1.105* 1.050* 0.990 0.993 1.128* 1.079* 0.972 0.999 
 (0.019) (0.014) (0.012) (0.010) (0.024) (0.014) (0.016) (0.010) 
Number of observations 323,857 711,202 99,417 388,678 87,451 187,364 106,640 1,191,392 
Panel A: Low Income (<$40k)Panel B: High Income (>$80k)
BlackHispanicAsianWhiteBlackHispanicAsianWhite
(1)(2)(3)(4)(5)(6)(7)(8)
Geographic proximitya         
Can commute (distance ≤ 60 miles) 5.458* 19.365* 8.378* 11.779* 2.761* 6.581* 3.888* 3.491* 
 (0.395) (1.327) (0.858) (0.785) (0.256) (0.518) (0.455) (0.226) 
Can visit home (distance between 61 and 250 miles) 3.246* 4.688* 3.319* 3.469* 2.352* 3.036* 2.928* 2.283* 
 (0.155) (0.253) (0.262) (0.139) (0.128) (0.141) (0.218) (0.065) 
College preparedness: Measures of SAT Matchb         
Own SAT 100—149 pts above campus mean 0.441* 0.495* 0.535* 0.613* 0.450* 0.579* 0.897 0.675* 
 (0.021) (0.021) (0.048) (0.023) (0.032) (0.029) (0.068) (0.018) 
Own SAT 150—199 pts above campus mean 0.255* 0.308* 0.350* 0.388* 0.269* 0.375* 0.926 0.515* 
 (0.015) (0.017) (0.040) (0.019) (0.026) (0.024) (0.094) (0.019) 
Own SAT greater than 200 pts above campus mean 0.069* 0.102* 0.078* 0.113* 0.056* 0.102* 0.427* 0.171* 
 (0.007) (0.009) (0.012) (0.008) (0.008) (0.011) (0.057) (0.010) 
Own SAT 1—99 pts below campus mean 2.279* 1.960* 1.524* 1.589* 2.045* 1.499* 0.625* 1.115* 
 (0.074) (0.059) (0.109) (0.054) (0.119) (0.073) (0.056) (0.036) 
Own SAT 100—149 pts below campus mean 3.196* 2.795* 1.599* 1.822* 2.730* 1.641* 0.391* 0.972 
 (0.132) (0.123) (0.185) (0.099) (0.224) (0.130) (0.054) (0.057) 
Own SAT 150—199 pts below campus mean 3.896* 2.984* 1.601* 1.618* 2.694* 1.537* 0.261* 0.743* 
 (0.176) (0.163) (0.230) (0.106) (0.280) (0.142) (0.051) (0.056) 
Own SAT 200 or more pts below campus mean 4.776* 3.139* 1.255 1.297* 2.316* 1.003 0.063* 0.314* 
 (0.275) (0.231) (0.238) (0.111) (0.308) (0.127) (0.017) (0.033) 
Campus racial demographics (prior year's freshman class)        
% Black enrolled on campus 7.646* 0.350* 0.402* 0.079* 3.790* 0.169* 0.142* 0.068* 
 (0.664) (0.031) (0.061) (0.007) (0.447) (0.016) (0.017) (0.003) 
% Hispanic enrolled on campus 0.396* 1.333* 1.669* 0.190* 0.441* 0.721* 0.550* 0.101* 
 (0.040) (0.127) (0.302) (0.012) (0.051) (0.062) (0.102) (0.006) 
% Asian enrolled on campus 0.693 0.752 257.298* 0.003* 1.325 0.316* 291.763* 0.031* 
 (0.160) (0.151) (117.235) (0.001) (0.397) (0.081) (120.375) (0.009) 
Feeder patterns of student's high school to college campus       
Number enrolled from same high school in prior year 1.029* 1.043* 1.038* 1.026* 1.026* 1.030* 1.024* 1.012* 
 (0.005) (0.005) (0.006) (0.005) (0.004) (0.006) (0.006) (0.005) 
Number graduated from same high school in prior year 0.991 0.992 1.015* 1.015* 1.004 1.008 1.035* 1.018* 
 (0.005) (0.005) (0.006) (0.008) (0.004) (0.005) (0.007) (0.007) 
Number enrolled of same race from same high school 1.000 0.985* 1.009 1.005 1.017 0.969* 1.026* 1.021* 
 (0.009) (0.007) (0.016) (0.007) (0.011) (0.007) (0.013) (0.006) 
Number graduated of same race from same high school 1.105* 1.050* 0.990 0.993 1.128* 1.079* 0.972 0.999 
 (0.019) (0.014) (0.012) (0.010) (0.024) (0.014) (0.016) (0.010) 
Number of observations 323,857 711,202 99,417 388,678 87,451 187,364 106,640 1,191,392 

Notes: Conditional logit estimates are reported in odds ratios (with student fixed effects) of the probability of application to thirty-one state universities. Robust standard errors for clustering within high schools. Sample includes students who graduated from a Texas public high school in 2008 and 2009 and applied to at least one Texas public university for admission in the fall following high school graduation, and provided income data on ApplyTexas. A small number of students (<1%) are omitted who were missing distance to college or SAT scores.

aDistance is measured from the student's high school to each college campus.

bDichotomous measures of SAT match (omitted group has SATs 0—99 points [pts] above campus mean). Specifications also control for in-state tuition. All college campus variables (i.e., enrollment, graduation, SAT, and tuition) are lagged one year to information the student would have as she entered her senior year of high school.

*Statistical significance at p < 0.05 level.

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