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Table 1

The Italian Territories at the Time of Unification: Estimates and Open Questions

  population, 1861 (millionsrailways in operation, 1859 (kmstreets, 1863 (kmletters received per capita, 1862 illiterates, 1861 (percentprimary enrolment rate, 1861 (percent
Piedmont 2.8 850 16,500 6.1 54.2 93 
Liguria 0.8           
Sardinia 0.6 986 n.a. 89.7 29 
Lombardy 3.3 522 20,901 5.3 53.7 90 
Veneto 2.3   n.a. n.a. 75.0 n.a. 
Parma-Modena 0.9 25,766(b) 2.7(b) 78.0 36 
Papal States 3.2 101     80.0(c) 25–35(c) 
Tuscany 1.9 257 12,381 3.1 74.0 32 
Kingdom of the Two Sicilies 9.2 99 13,787 1.6 87.0 18(d) 
  
Italy 25.0 1.829 n.a. n.a. 75.0 43(e) 
  
  agricultural production, c. 1857(a) imports per capita, 1850–58 (italy=100) exports per capita, 1850–58 (italy=100) silk, 1857(h) 
total value (mln lireper hectare value (lirenumber of bowls value of raw silk (mln lire
Piedmont 516 169 197 108 25,000 59 
Liguria             
Sardinia 48 23         
Lombardy 435 238 120 145 34,627 80 
Veneto 270 128     20,000 33 
Parma-Modena 197 174 136 114 2,500 
Papal States 264 68 52 54 5,000 12 
Tuscany 242 117 185 127 3,300 
Kingdom of the Two Sicilies 870 81 45(f) 52(f) 14,400 35 
  
Italy 2,842 104 3.74(g) 3.27(g) 104,827 233 
  
  cotton, 1857 (number of spindlespaper production, 1858 (total value, mln liremodern engineering firms, 1861 (workerswool, 1866 (number of loomsleather production, 1866 (tonsextractive manufacturing industries, 1861 (per capita value of production, italy=100)(n) 
Piedmont 197,000 6.4 2,204(k) 2,700 4,150 97.1 
Liguria     2,255 350   212.1 
Sardinia     40 70.7 
Lombardy 123,046 4.5 1,522 550 1,909 100.2 
Veneto 30,000(i) 1,250 850 2,150 99.9 
Parma-Modena 1.5 100 796(m) 93.2 
Papal States 30,000(i) 1.8 759 400(m)     
Tuscany 3,000(i) 2.2 1,147 600 1,286 112.8 
Kingdom of the Two Sicilies 70,000(i) 3.0 2,500(l) 1,640 4,083 93.3 
  
Italy 453,000(i) 19.4 11,777 7,090(m) 14,274(m) 11.4(o) 
  population, 1861 (millionsrailways in operation, 1859 (kmstreets, 1863 (kmletters received per capita, 1862 illiterates, 1861 (percentprimary enrolment rate, 1861 (percent
Piedmont 2.8 850 16,500 6.1 54.2 93 
Liguria 0.8           
Sardinia 0.6 986 n.a. 89.7 29 
Lombardy 3.3 522 20,901 5.3 53.7 90 
Veneto 2.3   n.a. n.a. 75.0 n.a. 
Parma-Modena 0.9 25,766(b) 2.7(b) 78.0 36 
Papal States 3.2 101     80.0(c) 25–35(c) 
Tuscany 1.9 257 12,381 3.1 74.0 32 
Kingdom of the Two Sicilies 9.2 99 13,787 1.6 87.0 18(d) 
  
Italy 25.0 1.829 n.a. n.a. 75.0 43(e) 
  
  agricultural production, c. 1857(a) imports per capita, 1850–58 (italy=100) exports per capita, 1850–58 (italy=100) silk, 1857(h) 
total value (mln lireper hectare value (lirenumber of bowls value of raw silk (mln lire
Piedmont 516 169 197 108 25,000 59 
Liguria             
Sardinia 48 23         
Lombardy 435 238 120 145 34,627 80 
Veneto 270 128     20,000 33 
Parma-Modena 197 174 136 114 2,500 
Papal States 264 68 52 54 5,000 12 
Tuscany 242 117 185 127 3,300 
Kingdom of the Two Sicilies 870 81 45(f) 52(f) 14,400 35 
  
Italy 2,842 104 3.74(g) 3.27(g) 104,827 233 
  
  cotton, 1857 (number of spindlespaper production, 1858 (total value, mln liremodern engineering firms, 1861 (workerswool, 1866 (number of loomsleather production, 1866 (tonsextractive manufacturing industries, 1861 (per capita value of production, italy=100)(n) 
Piedmont 197,000 6.4 2,204(k) 2,700 4,150 97.1 
Liguria     2,255 350   212.1 
Sardinia     40 70.7 
Lombardy 123,046 4.5 1,522 550 1,909 100.2 
Veneto 30,000(i) 1,250 850 2,150 99.9 
Parma-Modena 1.5 100 796(m) 93.2 
Papal States 30,000(i) 1.8 759 400(m)     
Tuscany 3,000(i) 2.2 1,147 600 1,286 112.8 
Kingdom of the Two Sicilies 70,000(i) 3.0 2,500(l) 1,640 4,083 93.3 
  
Italy 453,000(i) 19.4 11,777 7,090(m) 14,274(m) 11.4(o) 

notes and critical apparatus (a) According to several scholars, the estimates of agricultural production are unreliable, and the figures for both the Papal States and the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies are underestimated: See Guido Pescosolido, “Alle origini del divario economico,” in Leandra D’Antone (ed.), Radici storiche ed esperienza dell’interventos traordinario nel Mezzogiorno. Taormina, 18–19 novembre 1994 (Rome, 1996), 13–36. (b) For Parma, Modena, and the Papal States, data for the kilometers of streets and letters received do not include Latium. (c) For the Papal States, the illiterates and primary enrollment rate are a rough estimate. (d) For the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies, the primary enrollment rate refers only to the continental South; for Sicily, the 9 percent estimate recorded in Zamagni, “Istruzione” (see Sources) is probably too low, even for the author herself; (e) As a consequence of points (c) and (d), the enrollment rate for Italy as a whole is also a rough estimate. (f) For the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies, the figures are population-weighted averages between the continental provinces (35 imports, 31 exports) and Sicily (72 imports, 111 exports). (g) The reference is to 1913 dollars. (h) The time is before the disease that killed the silkworms, after which, the primacy of Lombardy arguably grew even stronger, while the production of southern Italy became negligible (Zamagni, Introduzione, 43) (see Sources); (i) These numbers are rough estimates. (k) According to an alternate estimate, workers in Piedmont’s modern engineering firms numbered about 7,500: See Mario Abrate, L’industria siderurgica e meccanica in Piemonte dal 1831 al 1861 (Turin, 1961). (l) For the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies, the estimate refers only to Campania (2.225) and Sicily (275). (m) Latium is not included. (n) The extractive manufacturing industries are engineering, metallurgy, nonmetallic minerals, chemicals, and rubber. (o) The reference is to 1911 lire.

sources For population, see Svimez, Un secolo di statistiche italiane: Nord e Sud 1861–1961 (Rome, 1961); for railways in operation, kilometers of streets, letters received per capita, and agricultural production, Cesare Correnti and Pietro Maestri, Annuario statistico italiano per cura di Cesare Correnti e Pietro Maestri (Turin, 1864); for illiterates and primary enrolment rates, Vera Zamagni, “Istruzione e sviluppo economico: Il caso italiano, 1861–1913,” in Gianni Toniolo (ed.), L’economia italiana 1861–1940 (Rome, 1978), 137–178; for imports and exports, Giovanni Federico and Antonio Tena, “The Ripples of the Industrial Revolution: Exports, Economic Growth, and Regional Integration in Italy in the Early Nineteenth Century,” European Review of Economic History, XVIIII (2014), 349–369; for the data about silk, cotton, and paper, Maestri, “Della industria manifatturiera in Italia,” Rivista Contemporanea, LXXXVIII (1858), 207–431; for employment in modern engineering firms, Felice Giordano, L’industria del ferro in Italia (Turin, 1864); Camera dei Deputati, Atti Parlamentari, sessione 1865–66, n. 24A, Stabilimenti meccanici esistenti in Italia (Turin, 1864), 70–89; for the data about wool and leather, Maestri, L’Italia economica nel 1868 (Florence, 1868), 198–199; for the value of production from extractive manufacturing industries, author’s elaborations from Carlo Ciccarelli and Stefano Fenoaltea, “La cliometria e l’unificazione italiana: bollettino dal fronte,” Meridiana, LXXIII–LXXIV (2012), 258–266. Early versions of this table, without the last entry and certain figures (now outdated), see Zamagni, Dalla periferia al centro. La seconda rinascita economica dell’Italia / 1861–1990 (Bologna, 1990), 40–41; idem, Introduzione alla storia economica d’Italia (Bologna, 2007), 42–43; idem, “La situazione economico-sociale del Mezzogiorno negli anni dell’unificazione,” Meridiana, LXXIII–LXXIV (2012), 267–281.

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