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Table A1. 
Search strings used in funding-focused searches in Web of Science and Scopus
Web of Science: 
TS=( "R01 grant*" OR "baseline grant*" OR "funding mechanism*" OR "Research fund*" OR "Science fund*" OR "funding instrument*" OR" funding scheme*" OR "federal funding" OR "well-funded scien*" OR "well-funded research*" OR "well-funded investigat*" OR "grant portfolio*" OR "investment portfolio" OR "research grant*" OR "research investment*" OR "investment* in research" OR "science grant*") AND TS=("research productivity" OR "scientific productivity" OR "scientific performance" OR "research performance" OR "research impact" OR "technological performance" OR "grant size*" OR "scientific impact*" OR "citation impact" OR "scientific quality" OR "scholarly impact" OR "scientific output*" OR "critical mass" OR "centers of excellence" OR "centres of excellence" OR "grant size*" OR "funding size*" OR "epistemic effect*" OR "research excellence" OR "scientific excellence" OR "distributional equit*" OR "allocation of funding" OR "distribution of funding" OR "research allocation*" OR "funding allocation*" OR "funding distribution*" OR "size of research funding" OR "concentrat*" OR diversity OR diversifying OR diversification* OR dispersion OR dispersal OR "increasing marginal return*" OR "decreasing marginal return*" OR "large-scale" OR "small-scale" OR "small science" OR "big science" OR "funding cap" OR "project size" OR "peer-review system" OR "strategic funding" OR "research agenda" OR "ground-breaking research" OR "scientific breakthrough*" OR concentration*) 
 
Timespan: no limitation 
Index: SCI-EXPANDED, SSCI, A&HCI, CPCI-S, CPCI-SSH, ESCI. 
Document types: Article, Book, Book Chapter, Discussion or Letter. 
Language: English 
N publications retrieved: 1,158 
 
Scopus: 
TITLE-ABS-KEY ( "R01 grant*" OR "baseline grant*" OR "funding mechanism*" OR "Research fund*" OR "Science fund*" OR "funding instrument*" OR " funding scheme*" OR "federal funding" OR "well-funded scien*" OR "well-funded research*" OR "well-funded investigat*" OR "grant portfolio*" OR "investment portfolio" OR "research grant*" OR "research investment*" OR "investment* in research" OR "science grant*" ) TITLE-ABS-KEY ( "research productivity" OR "scientific productivity" OR "scientific performance" OR "research performance" OR "research impact" OR "technological performance" OR "grant size*" OR "scientific impact*" OR "citation impact" OR "scientific quality" OR "scholarly impact" OR "scientific output*" OR "critical mass" OR "centers of excellence" OR "centres of excellence" OR "grant size*" OR "funding size*" OR "epistemic effect*" OR "research excellence" OR "scientific excellence" OR "distributional equit*" OR "allocation of funding" OR "distribution of funding" OR "research allocation*" OR "funding allocation*" OR "funding distribution*" OR "size of research funding" OR "concentrat*" OR diversity OR diversifying OR diversification* OR dispersion OR dispersal OR "increasing marginal return*" OR "decreasing marginal return*" OR "large-scale" OR "small-scale" OR "small science" OR "big science" OR "funding cap" OR "project size" OR "peer-review system" OR "strategic funding" OR "research agenda" OR "ground-breaking research" OR "scientific breakthrough*" OR concentration* ) 
 
Timespan: no limitation 
Document types: no limitation 
Language: no limitation 
N publications retrieved: 2,231 
Web of Science: 
TS=( "R01 grant*" OR "baseline grant*" OR "funding mechanism*" OR "Research fund*" OR "Science fund*" OR "funding instrument*" OR" funding scheme*" OR "federal funding" OR "well-funded scien*" OR "well-funded research*" OR "well-funded investigat*" OR "grant portfolio*" OR "investment portfolio" OR "research grant*" OR "research investment*" OR "investment* in research" OR "science grant*") AND TS=("research productivity" OR "scientific productivity" OR "scientific performance" OR "research performance" OR "research impact" OR "technological performance" OR "grant size*" OR "scientific impact*" OR "citation impact" OR "scientific quality" OR "scholarly impact" OR "scientific output*" OR "critical mass" OR "centers of excellence" OR "centres of excellence" OR "grant size*" OR "funding size*" OR "epistemic effect*" OR "research excellence" OR "scientific excellence" OR "distributional equit*" OR "allocation of funding" OR "distribution of funding" OR "research allocation*" OR "funding allocation*" OR "funding distribution*" OR "size of research funding" OR "concentrat*" OR diversity OR diversifying OR diversification* OR dispersion OR dispersal OR "increasing marginal return*" OR "decreasing marginal return*" OR "large-scale" OR "small-scale" OR "small science" OR "big science" OR "funding cap" OR "project size" OR "peer-review system" OR "strategic funding" OR "research agenda" OR "ground-breaking research" OR "scientific breakthrough*" OR concentration*) 
 
Timespan: no limitation 
Index: SCI-EXPANDED, SSCI, A&HCI, CPCI-S, CPCI-SSH, ESCI. 
Document types: Article, Book, Book Chapter, Discussion or Letter. 
Language: English 
N publications retrieved: 1,158 
 
Scopus: 
TITLE-ABS-KEY ( "R01 grant*" OR "baseline grant*" OR "funding mechanism*" OR "Research fund*" OR "Science fund*" OR "funding instrument*" OR " funding scheme*" OR "federal funding" OR "well-funded scien*" OR "well-funded research*" OR "well-funded investigat*" OR "grant portfolio*" OR "investment portfolio" OR "research grant*" OR "research investment*" OR "investment* in research" OR "science grant*" ) TITLE-ABS-KEY ( "research productivity" OR "scientific productivity" OR "scientific performance" OR "research performance" OR "research impact" OR "technological performance" OR "grant size*" OR "scientific impact*" OR "citation impact" OR "scientific quality" OR "scholarly impact" OR "scientific output*" OR "critical mass" OR "centers of excellence" OR "centres of excellence" OR "grant size*" OR "funding size*" OR "epistemic effect*" OR "research excellence" OR "scientific excellence" OR "distributional equit*" OR "allocation of funding" OR "distribution of funding" OR "research allocation*" OR "funding allocation*" OR "funding distribution*" OR "size of research funding" OR "concentrat*" OR diversity OR diversifying OR diversification* OR dispersion OR dispersal OR "increasing marginal return*" OR "decreasing marginal return*" OR "large-scale" OR "small-scale" OR "small science" OR "big science" OR "funding cap" OR "project size" OR "peer-review system" OR "strategic funding" OR "research agenda" OR "ground-breaking research" OR "scientific breakthrough*" OR concentration* ) 
 
Timespan: no limitation 
Document types: no limitation 
Language: no limitation 
N publications retrieved: 2,231 
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