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Table 3. 
Variables for machine learning
NameDescriptionSource
spell_research Dummy, value 1 if individual has/had a spell at a university or research institute. European statistical classification for economic activities was used. Values were extended by record linkage for research institutions and universities. IEB 
spell_hospital Dummy, value 1 if individual has a spell in a hospital/medical practice. European statistical classification for economic activities was used. IEB 
prop_educ Dummy, value 1 if education of individual belongs to university entrance qualification. IEB 
age_sub Continuous, age in submission year. IEB/DNB 
right_age Dummy, value 1 if individual is between 25 and 40 years old in submission year. Used for heuristic approach instead of age_sub. IEB/DNB 
same_ror_y5 Dummy, value 1 if individual was employed in university region 5 years before/after graduation. IEB/DNB 
first_spell_before Continuous, first year in IEB subtracted from year of submission. IEB/DNB 
right_first_spell_before Dummy, value 1 if first_spell_before is between −10 and 5. Used for heuristic approach instead of first_spell_before. IEB/DNB 
year_diss Continuous, year of submission. DNB 
eastern Dummy, value 1 if individual graduated in new federal states. DNB 
social science Dummy, value 1 if individual graduated in social science. DNB 
natural science Dummy, value 1 if individual graduated in natural science. DNB 
engineering Dummy, value 1 if individual graduated in engineering. DNB 
medicine Dummy, value 1 if individual graduated in medicine. DNB 
law/economics Dummy, value 1 if individual graduated in economics/business studies/law. DNB 
nbr Continuous, number of common namesakes in IEB Data. IEB 
NameDescriptionSource
spell_research Dummy, value 1 if individual has/had a spell at a university or research institute. European statistical classification for economic activities was used. Values were extended by record linkage for research institutions and universities. IEB 
spell_hospital Dummy, value 1 if individual has a spell in a hospital/medical practice. European statistical classification for economic activities was used. IEB 
prop_educ Dummy, value 1 if education of individual belongs to university entrance qualification. IEB 
age_sub Continuous, age in submission year. IEB/DNB 
right_age Dummy, value 1 if individual is between 25 and 40 years old in submission year. Used for heuristic approach instead of age_sub. IEB/DNB 
same_ror_y5 Dummy, value 1 if individual was employed in university region 5 years before/after graduation. IEB/DNB 
first_spell_before Continuous, first year in IEB subtracted from year of submission. IEB/DNB 
right_first_spell_before Dummy, value 1 if first_spell_before is between −10 and 5. Used for heuristic approach instead of first_spell_before. IEB/DNB 
year_diss Continuous, year of submission. DNB 
eastern Dummy, value 1 if individual graduated in new federal states. DNB 
social science Dummy, value 1 if individual graduated in social science. DNB 
natural science Dummy, value 1 if individual graduated in natural science. DNB 
engineering Dummy, value 1 if individual graduated in engineering. DNB 
medicine Dummy, value 1 if individual graduated in medicine. DNB 
law/economics Dummy, value 1 if individual graduated in economics/business studies/law. DNB 
nbr Continuous, number of common namesakes in IEB Data. IEB 
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