Skip to Main Content
Table 1. 

Details of Sentence Stimuli Composition with Examples of Sentence Types (M = mean; KF = Kucera–Francis)

Sentence Type
No. Sentences
Example
Total No. Words
No. per Sentence (M)
KF Frequency (M)
Imageability of Content Words (M)
Age of Acquisition (M)
Concreteness (M)
Syllables
Letters
Phonemes
Reversible Sentences 
Active “The old dog bites the fox” 25 17 122 558 208 539 
Passive “The rat is sniffed by the gray squirrel” 10 32 25 57 565 242 553 
Subject cleft “It is the dancer that hugs the clown” 30 22 108 572 293 562 
Object cleft “It is the cook that the woman loves” 29 22 179 565 228 544 
Locative “The circle is in the gold star” 25 19 88 573 245 580 
Dative “Give the happy boy to the girl” 24 19 139 534 204 509 
Total 40  27 21 115 561 237 548 
 
Nonreversible Sentences 
Active “The rich queen spends the money” 26 20 115 525 306 515 
Passive “The giant safe is locked by the guard” 10 31 24 74 505 357 494 
Subject cleft “It is the drunk that starts the fight” 30 24 182 506 306 470 
Object cleft “It is the dress the model hates” 10 31 25 87 503 315 473 
Locative “The marble temple is in the field” 26 21 210 554 324 548 
Dative “Put the salt on the plain meal” 28 23 172 483 310 471 
Total 40  28 23 140 513 320 495 
Sentence Type
No. Sentences
Example
Total No. Words
No. per Sentence (M)
KF Frequency (M)
Imageability of Content Words (M)
Age of Acquisition (M)
Concreteness (M)
Syllables
Letters
Phonemes
Reversible Sentences 
Active “The old dog bites the fox” 25 17 122 558 208 539 
Passive “The rat is sniffed by the gray squirrel” 10 32 25 57 565 242 553 
Subject cleft “It is the dancer that hugs the clown” 30 22 108 572 293 562 
Object cleft “It is the cook that the woman loves” 29 22 179 565 228 544 
Locative “The circle is in the gold star” 25 19 88 573 245 580 
Dative “Give the happy boy to the girl” 24 19 139 534 204 509 
Total 40  27 21 115 561 237 548 
 
Nonreversible Sentences 
Active “The rich queen spends the money” 26 20 115 525 306 515 
Passive “The giant safe is locked by the guard” 10 31 24 74 505 357 494 
Subject cleft “It is the drunk that starts the fight” 30 24 182 506 306 470 
Object cleft “It is the dress the model hates” 10 31 25 87 503 315 473 
Locative “The marble temple is in the field” 26 21 210 554 324 548 
Dative “Put the salt on the plain meal” 28 23 172 483 310 471 
Total 40  28 23 140 513 320 495 

*Nonreversible sentences were mainly strongly nonreversible, where the constraints set for the sentence stimuli permitted.

Close Modal

or Create an Account

Close Modal
Close Modal