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Table 1. 

The Activation Peaks within the Left Temporal Lobe Reported in Previously Published Neuroimaging Studies in which Listening to Speech Is Compared with Listening to a Nonspeech Stimulus

Authors
Contrast
Coordinates
Area
Task
x
y
z
Binder et al. (1996) Monosyllabic words vs. pure tones −56 −12 −2 L STS Passive 
Mummery, Ashbumer, Scott, and Wise (1999) (PET) Bisyllabic nouns vs. signal correlated noise −54 −28 +4 L MTG Passive 
Binder et al. (2000) Monosyllabic words vs. pure tones −52 −42 +6 L STS Passive 
Scott et al. (2000) (PET) Speech + Vco vs. Rsp + RVco −66 −12 −12 L STS Passive 
Benson et al. (2001) Nonsense syllables vs. tonal nonspeech −57 −42 +12 L STG Passive 
Belin et al. (2002) Speech sounds vs. nonspeech vocalizations −62 −40 +10 L MTG Passive 
Jancke et al. (2002) CV syllables vs. white noise −64 −16 L STG Passive 
Narain et al. (2003) Speech + Vco vs. Rsp + RVco −52 −54 +14 L STG Passive 
Specht and Reul (2003) Mono/bisyllabic words vs. pure tones −63 −12 −6 L STS Passive 
Rimol et al. (2005) CV syllables vs. noise (white, pink, brown) −59 −27 −2 L MTG Passive 
Uppenkamp et al. (2006) Natural and synthetic vowels vs. nonspeech sounds −66 −20 L STS Passive 
Scott et al. (2006) (PET) Vco vs. Vco + RVco −60 −44 +10 L STS Passive 
Present study “Ted” vs. white noise −66 −36 +3 L MTG Passive 
Zatorre et al. (1992) (PET) CVC syllables vs. white noise −58 −21 +8 L STG Active 
O'Leary et al. (1996) (PET) CV syllables vs. pure tones −57 −31 +7 L STG Active 
Burton et al. (2000) CVC syllables vs. pure tones −64 −23 +6 L STG Active 
Giraud and Price (2001) (PET) Words + nonwords vs. environmental sounds + white noise −70 −38 +6 L STG Active 
Vouloumanos et al. (2001) Sine wave (speech) vs. pure tones −60 −16 −8 L MTG Active 
Gandour et al. (2003) Consonant syllables vs. hums −54 −54 +10 L MTG Active 
Joanisse and Gati (2003) CV syllables vs. pure tones −56 −22 +3 L STG Active 
Liebenthal, Binder, Piorkowski, and Remez (2003) Sine wave (speech) vs. sine wave (nonspeech) −51 −30 +19 L STG Active 
Thierry et al. (2003) (PET) Spoken words vs. environmental sounds −60 −40 L STG Active 
Ashtari et al. (2004) Phonemes vs. pure tones −63 −36 +3 L MTG Active 
Poeppel et al. (2004) (PET) CV syllables vs. frequency modulated tones −62 −36 +4 L STG Active 
Zaehle et al. (2004) CV syllables vs. pure tones −66 −15 L STG Active 
Dehaene-Lambertz et al. (2005) Sine wave (speech) vs. sine wave (nonspeech) −56 −40 L STS Active 
Liebenthal et al. (2005) CV syllables (phonemic) vs. CV syllables (nonphonemic) −60 −8 −3 L STS Active 
Meyer et al. (2005) Streams of syllables vs. sequences of laugh bursts −59 −13 +6 L STG Active 
Benson et al. (2006) Sine wave speech vs. nonspeech + chord progressions −64 −32 −8 L STS Active 
Burton and Small (2006) CVC syllables vs. pure tones −61 −12 −1 L STG Active 
Mottonen et al. (2006) Sine wave (speech) vs. sine wave (nonspeech) −61 −39 +2 L STS Active 
Obleser et al. (2006) German vowels vs. band-pass noise −63 −2 −2 L STG Active 
Desai et al. (2008) Sine wave (speech) vs. sine wave (nonspeech) −51 −43 +5 L STS Active 
Authors
Contrast
Coordinates
Area
Task
x
y
z
Binder et al. (1996) Monosyllabic words vs. pure tones −56 −12 −2 L STS Passive 
Mummery, Ashbumer, Scott, and Wise (1999) (PET) Bisyllabic nouns vs. signal correlated noise −54 −28 +4 L MTG Passive 
Binder et al. (2000) Monosyllabic words vs. pure tones −52 −42 +6 L STS Passive 
Scott et al. (2000) (PET) Speech + Vco vs. Rsp + RVco −66 −12 −12 L STS Passive 
Benson et al. (2001) Nonsense syllables vs. tonal nonspeech −57 −42 +12 L STG Passive 
Belin et al. (2002) Speech sounds vs. nonspeech vocalizations −62 −40 +10 L MTG Passive 
Jancke et al. (2002) CV syllables vs. white noise −64 −16 L STG Passive 
Narain et al. (2003) Speech + Vco vs. Rsp + RVco −52 −54 +14 L STG Passive 
Specht and Reul (2003) Mono/bisyllabic words vs. pure tones −63 −12 −6 L STS Passive 
Rimol et al. (2005) CV syllables vs. noise (white, pink, brown) −59 −27 −2 L MTG Passive 
Uppenkamp et al. (2006) Natural and synthetic vowels vs. nonspeech sounds −66 −20 L STS Passive 
Scott et al. (2006) (PET) Vco vs. Vco + RVco −60 −44 +10 L STS Passive 
Present study “Ted” vs. white noise −66 −36 +3 L MTG Passive 
Zatorre et al. (1992) (PET) CVC syllables vs. white noise −58 −21 +8 L STG Active 
O'Leary et al. (1996) (PET) CV syllables vs. pure tones −57 −31 +7 L STG Active 
Burton et al. (2000) CVC syllables vs. pure tones −64 −23 +6 L STG Active 
Giraud and Price (2001) (PET) Words + nonwords vs. environmental sounds + white noise −70 −38 +6 L STG Active 
Vouloumanos et al. (2001) Sine wave (speech) vs. pure tones −60 −16 −8 L MTG Active 
Gandour et al. (2003) Consonant syllables vs. hums −54 −54 +10 L MTG Active 
Joanisse and Gati (2003) CV syllables vs. pure tones −56 −22 +3 L STG Active 
Liebenthal, Binder, Piorkowski, and Remez (2003) Sine wave (speech) vs. sine wave (nonspeech) −51 −30 +19 L STG Active 
Thierry et al. (2003) (PET) Spoken words vs. environmental sounds −60 −40 L STG Active 
Ashtari et al. (2004) Phonemes vs. pure tones −63 −36 +3 L MTG Active 
Poeppel et al. (2004) (PET) CV syllables vs. frequency modulated tones −62 −36 +4 L STG Active 
Zaehle et al. (2004) CV syllables vs. pure tones −66 −15 L STG Active 
Dehaene-Lambertz et al. (2005) Sine wave (speech) vs. sine wave (nonspeech) −56 −40 L STS Active 
Liebenthal et al. (2005) CV syllables (phonemic) vs. CV syllables (nonphonemic) −60 −8 −3 L STS Active 
Meyer et al. (2005) Streams of syllables vs. sequences of laugh bursts −59 −13 +6 L STG Active 
Benson et al. (2006) Sine wave speech vs. nonspeech + chord progressions −64 −32 −8 L STS Active 
Burton and Small (2006) CVC syllables vs. pure tones −61 −12 −1 L STG Active 
Mottonen et al. (2006) Sine wave (speech) vs. sine wave (nonspeech) −61 −39 +2 L STS Active 
Obleser et al. (2006) German vowels vs. band-pass noise −63 −2 −2 L STG Active 
Desai et al. (2008) Sine wave (speech) vs. sine wave (nonspeech) −51 −43 +5 L STS Active 

The contrast for the present study listed in the table represents (listen-clear − listen-masked). “Passive” means speech perception in a passive listening mode. “Active” means speech perception with active tasks involved, such as detection or discrimination of stimulus items. The previous studies are classified by the nature of their task (passive or active) and listed in chronological order within each task category. These studies are all fMRI studies except for the studies specified as PET, which indicates positron emission tomography. CV = consonant–vowel; CVC = consonant–vowel–consonant; Vco = noise-vocoded speech; Rsp = spectrally rotated normal speech; RVco = spectrally rotated noise-vocoded speech.

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