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Table 1. 

Mean Scores by Proficiency

Group
TOAL-3 L-V***
TOAL-3 L-G***
TOAL-3 S-G***
Saffran and Schwartz**
Carpenter Span*
LP (n = 17, 7 Females) 
M (SD) 23.06 (5.69) 19.00 (7.98) 17.06 (3.36) 74.29 (3.08) 2.79 (.53) 
Range 14–33 7–32 9–22 67–78 2–4 
Percentile 37 25 16 N/A N/A 
 
HP (n = 17, 10 Females) 
M (SD31.18 (2.55) 30.71 (4.79) 22.59 (1.62) 76.12 (.992) 3.15 (.66) 
Range 27–35 17–35 20–25 75–78 2–5 
Percentile 84 75 91 N/A N/A 
Group
TOAL-3 L-V***
TOAL-3 L-G***
TOAL-3 S-G***
Saffran and Schwartz**
Carpenter Span*
LP (n = 17, 7 Females) 
M (SD) 23.06 (5.69) 19.00 (7.98) 17.06 (3.36) 74.29 (3.08) 2.79 (.53) 
Range 14–33 7–32 9–22 67–78 2–4 
Percentile 37 25 16 N/A N/A 
 
HP (n = 17, 10 Females) 
M (SD31.18 (2.55) 30.71 (4.79) 22.59 (1.62) 76.12 (.992) 3.15 (.66) 
Range 27–35 17–35 20–25 75–78 2–5 
Percentile 84 75 91 N/A N/A 

*p = .095.

**p < .05.

***p < .0001.

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