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Table 2. 

Brain Activation for Task Switching and Distractor Inhibition, as Compared with the Baseline Established by the Ongoing Task Condition

Brain Region
BA
Hemisphere
MNI Coordinates
Tmax
Cluster Size
x
y
z
Task Switching 
Inferior frontal junction (IFJ) 9/45/8/6 left −46 −2 +44 6.39 60516 
9/45/8/6 right +44 +4 +34 4.77 a 
Dorsolateral pFC (DLPFC) 9/46/8/6 left −46 +32 +36 5.63 a 
9/46/8/6 right +44 +30 +30 4.59 a 
9/46/8/6 right +42 +42 +12 7.21 a 
Anterior insula, frontal operculum/inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) 44/45/47 right +32 +22 −4 4.99 a 
Supplementary premotor area (SMA)/pre-SMA 32/6/8 left/right 56 5.10 a 
Anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) 24/6 left/right −6 16 42 5.11 a 
Intraparietal sulcus (IPS)/precuneus 40/39/7 left −30 −52 +46 7.81 a 
40/39/7 right +54 −36 +52 9.65 a 
Occipital lobe 17 left/right −2 −84 +8 6.74 a 
Basal ganglia (globus pallidus, putamen, caudate nucleus)  left −20 +14 4.65 a 
right +18 +2 +14 4.56 a 
Thalamus right +18 −22 +4 8.13 a 
Cerebellum left −2 −60 −12 7.90 a 
 
Distractor Inhibition 
Inferior frontal junction (IFJ)/dorsolateral pFC (DLPFC) 9/45/8/6 left −48 +4 +36 5.13 2853 
−44 +30 +24 4.81  
9/45/8/6 right +40 +4 +30 5.05 2909 
+46 +42 +12 4.81  
Anterior insula right +34 +24 −6 4.08 206 
Pre-supplementary premotor area (pre-SMA)/anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) 32/6/8/9 left/right −6 +16 +46 4.52 445 
Intraparietal sulcus (IPS)/precuneus/occipital lobe 40/39/7 left −42 −36 +40 7.91 14969 
−44 −70 −10 5.81  
right +46 −32 +44 6.30  
Brain Region
BA
Hemisphere
MNI Coordinates
Tmax
Cluster Size
x
y
z
Task Switching 
Inferior frontal junction (IFJ) 9/45/8/6 left −46 −2 +44 6.39 60516 
9/45/8/6 right +44 +4 +34 4.77 a 
Dorsolateral pFC (DLPFC) 9/46/8/6 left −46 +32 +36 5.63 a 
9/46/8/6 right +44 +30 +30 4.59 a 
9/46/8/6 right +42 +42 +12 7.21 a 
Anterior insula, frontal operculum/inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) 44/45/47 right +32 +22 −4 4.99 a 
Supplementary premotor area (SMA)/pre-SMA 32/6/8 left/right 56 5.10 a 
Anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) 24/6 left/right −6 16 42 5.11 a 
Intraparietal sulcus (IPS)/precuneus 40/39/7 left −30 −52 +46 7.81 a 
40/39/7 right +54 −36 +52 9.65 a 
Occipital lobe 17 left/right −2 −84 +8 6.74 a 
Basal ganglia (globus pallidus, putamen, caudate nucleus)  left −20 +14 4.65 a 
right +18 +2 +14 4.56 a 
Thalamus right +18 −22 +4 8.13 a 
Cerebellum left −2 −60 −12 7.90 a 
 
Distractor Inhibition 
Inferior frontal junction (IFJ)/dorsolateral pFC (DLPFC) 9/45/8/6 left −48 +4 +36 5.13 2853 
−44 +30 +24 4.81  
9/45/8/6 right +40 +4 +30 5.05 2909 
+46 +42 +12 4.81  
Anterior insula right +34 +24 −6 4.08 206 
Pre-supplementary premotor area (pre-SMA)/anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) 32/6/8/9 left/right −6 +16 +46 4.52 445 
Intraparietal sulcus (IPS)/precuneus/occipital lobe 40/39/7 left −42 −36 +40 7.91 14969 
−44 −70 −10 5.81  
right +46 −32 +44 6.30  

aFor task switching, local maxima are reported as the switching effect forms a single, extensive cluster.

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