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Table 1. 

Schema Showing the Microlinguistic and Macrolinguistic Measures Used in the Analyses of the Narrative Production Task

Microlinguistic analysis 
Productivity 
 Words Total number of well-formed words (i.e., all those units that were not scored as phonological errors). 
 Speech rate Number of well-formed words produced in a minute. 
 MLU The mean number of words that made up the utterances produced by each participant. 
Lexical errors 
 %Phonological errors The percentage of units produced by each participant that were scored as phonological errors (i.e., false starts, phonological and phonetic paraphasias and neologisms). 
 %Semantic paraphasias The percentage of words that were scored as semantic errors (e.g., semantic or verbal paraphasias). A semantic paraphasia consists in the substitution of a target word with another word, which can be either semantically related (e.g., “cat” instead of “dog”) or unrelated (e.g., “table” instead of “chair”). 
 %Paragrammatic errors The percentage of words that were classified as paragrammatic errors. These include: the substitution of bound morphemes (i.e., “questo è una coppia” “this [masc in Italian] is a couple [fem]”—in Italian “questo” should be “questa”) or function words (i.e., “batte da una porta” “he is knocking from a door”—in Italian “da” instead of “a”). 
 
Macrolinguistic analysis 
Informative content 
 %Lexical informativeness The percentage of words that were scored as LIUs, i.e., those words that were not only well formed from a phonological point of view but also grammatically and pragmatically accurate. This broad category includes all those words that were not scored as phonological errors, semantic paraphasias, or paragrammatic errors and were not ambiguous, repeated, or forming tangential utterances. 
Textual organization 
 %Local coherence errors The percentage of utterances that were not accurately connected because they presented local coherence errors. Local coherence errors include the use of words with unclear referents and erratic topic shifts. An erratic topic shift occurs whenever an utterance is abruptly interrupted and in the subsequent utterance, instead of completing the preceding utterance, the speaker introduces a new topic. 
 %Global coherence errors The percentage of utterances that violated global coherence rules. Global coherence refers to the conceptual connectivity across long-distant sentences within a discourse. Global coherence errors include the production of utterances that may be tangential, conceptually incongruent with the story, propositional repetitions or simple fillers. 
Microlinguistic analysis 
Productivity 
 Words Total number of well-formed words (i.e., all those units that were not scored as phonological errors). 
 Speech rate Number of well-formed words produced in a minute. 
 MLU The mean number of words that made up the utterances produced by each participant. 
Lexical errors 
 %Phonological errors The percentage of units produced by each participant that were scored as phonological errors (i.e., false starts, phonological and phonetic paraphasias and neologisms). 
 %Semantic paraphasias The percentage of words that were scored as semantic errors (e.g., semantic or verbal paraphasias). A semantic paraphasia consists in the substitution of a target word with another word, which can be either semantically related (e.g., “cat” instead of “dog”) or unrelated (e.g., “table” instead of “chair”). 
 %Paragrammatic errors The percentage of words that were classified as paragrammatic errors. These include: the substitution of bound morphemes (i.e., “questo è una coppia” “this [masc in Italian] is a couple [fem]”—in Italian “questo” should be “questa”) or function words (i.e., “batte da una porta” “he is knocking from a door”—in Italian “da” instead of “a”). 
 
Macrolinguistic analysis 
Informative content 
 %Lexical informativeness The percentage of words that were scored as LIUs, i.e., those words that were not only well formed from a phonological point of view but also grammatically and pragmatically accurate. This broad category includes all those words that were not scored as phonological errors, semantic paraphasias, or paragrammatic errors and were not ambiguous, repeated, or forming tangential utterances. 
Textual organization 
 %Local coherence errors The percentage of utterances that were not accurately connected because they presented local coherence errors. Local coherence errors include the use of words with unclear referents and erratic topic shifts. An erratic topic shift occurs whenever an utterance is abruptly interrupted and in the subsequent utterance, instead of completing the preceding utterance, the speaker introduces a new topic. 
 %Global coherence errors The percentage of utterances that violated global coherence rules. Global coherence refers to the conceptual connectivity across long-distant sentences within a discourse. Global coherence errors include the production of utterances that may be tangential, conceptually incongruent with the story, propositional repetitions or simple fillers. 
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