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Table 1. 

Summary of ERP Studies on Regular and Irregular Verb Inflection Using Grammatical Violations or Repetition Priming

Grammatical Violations
Study
Language
Modality
Violation Type
Context
Incorrect Application of Irregular Forms
ERP Effects of Regularization
Incorrect Application of Irregular Forms
ERP Effects of Irregularization
Allen et al., 2003  English visual past tense verb in future context sentence will *worked vs. work late positivity (P600), later onset than irregular will *stood vs. stand late positivity (P600) 
Newman et al., 2007  English visual uninflected verb in past tense context sentence Yesterday I *frown vs. frowned late positivity (P600) and LAN Yesterday I *grind vs. ground late positivity (P600) and left (posterior) negativity 
Penke et al., 1997  German visual incorrect participle suffix sentence *aufgeladet vs.aufgeladen LAN *durchgetanzen vs.durchgetanzt no effect 
Gross et al., 1998  Italian visual incorrect theme vowel and incorrect participle suffix sentence *prend-a-to vs. preso N400 (lateralized to the right temporal region)   
visual incorrect theme vowel sentence *dorm-a-to vs. dorm-i-to no effect *parl-i-to vs. parl-a-to right anterior negativity at temporal sites 
Rodriguez-Fornells et al., 2001  Catalan visual incorrect theme vowel and incorrect participle suffix sentence *admet-a-t vs. admès late positivity   
visual incorrect theme vowel sentence *dorm-a-t vs. dorm-it left early (not anterior) negativity and late positivity *cant-i-t vs. cant-a-t late positivity 
visual incorrect theme vowel sentence *tem-a-t vs. tem-u-t left early (not anterior) negativity and right anterior negativity   
Morris & Holcomb, 2005  English visual incorrect suffix and incorrect stem vowel sentence *bringed vs. brought LAN and late posterior positivity (P600) *sept vs. walked(different verbs) LAN and late posterior positivity (P600) 
visual incorrect suffix and incorrect stem vowel single words *bringed vs. brought late (posterior) positivity *sept vs. walked(different verbs) late positivity 
Weyerts et al., 1996  German long lag visual unprimed vs. identity single words getanzt (unprimed) vs. getanzt–getanzt N400 and post-N400 range geboten (unprimed) vs. geboten–geboten N400, later onset than regular 
long lag visual unprimed vs. infinitive single words getanzt (unprimed) vs. tanzen–getanzt N400 and post-N400 range geboten (unprimed) vs. bieten–geboten N400, later onset than regular 
Münte et al., 1999  English long lag visual unrelated vs. past tense single words walked–stretch vs. stretched–stretch N400 and right fronto-temporal positivity sang–fight vs. fought–fight right centroparietal positivity 
Marslen-Wilson & Tyler, 1998  English immediate cross-modal unrelated vs. past tense single words locked–jump vs. jumped–jump N400 and LAN shows–find vs. found–find N400 and LAN 
Rodriguez-Fornells et al., 2002  Spanish long lag visual unrelated vs. present tense single words ando–lavar vs. ando–andar N400 entiendo–querer vs. entiendo–entender no effect 
Justus et al., 2008  English immediate auditory unrelated vs. past tense single words worked–seem vs. looked–look N400 and late N400 suffixed irregular: had–fight vs. slept–sleep N400 and late N400 
vowel change irregular: bound–wake vs. spoke–speak N400, late N400 (strongest priming effect) 
Kielar & Joanisse, 2009  English immediate visual unrelated vs. past tense single words rented–walk vs. walked–walk N400 (strongest priming effect) suffixed irregular: wept–feel vs. felt–feel N400 (intermediate priming effect) 
vowel change irregular: sang–write vs. wrote–write N400 (weakest priming effect) 
immediate cross-modal unrelated vs. past tense single words rented–walk vs. walked–walk N400 (strongest priming effect) suffixed irregular: wept–feel vs. felt–feel N400 (intermediate priming effect) 
vowel change irregular: sang–write vs. wrote–write N400 (weakest priming effect) 
Grammatical Violations
Study
Language
Modality
Violation Type
Context
Incorrect Application of Irregular Forms
ERP Effects of Regularization
Incorrect Application of Irregular Forms
ERP Effects of Irregularization
Allen et al., 2003  English visual past tense verb in future context sentence will *worked vs. work late positivity (P600), later onset than irregular will *stood vs. stand late positivity (P600) 
Newman et al., 2007  English visual uninflected verb in past tense context sentence Yesterday I *frown vs. frowned late positivity (P600) and LAN Yesterday I *grind vs. ground late positivity (P600) and left (posterior) negativity 
Penke et al., 1997  German visual incorrect participle suffix sentence *aufgeladet vs.aufgeladen LAN *durchgetanzen vs.durchgetanzt no effect 
Gross et al., 1998  Italian visual incorrect theme vowel and incorrect participle suffix sentence *prend-a-to vs. preso N400 (lateralized to the right temporal region)   
visual incorrect theme vowel sentence *dorm-a-to vs. dorm-i-to no effect *parl-i-to vs. parl-a-to right anterior negativity at temporal sites 
Rodriguez-Fornells et al., 2001  Catalan visual incorrect theme vowel and incorrect participle suffix sentence *admet-a-t vs. admès late positivity   
visual incorrect theme vowel sentence *dorm-a-t vs. dorm-it left early (not anterior) negativity and late positivity *cant-i-t vs. cant-a-t late positivity 
visual incorrect theme vowel sentence *tem-a-t vs. tem-u-t left early (not anterior) negativity and right anterior negativity   
Morris & Holcomb, 2005  English visual incorrect suffix and incorrect stem vowel sentence *bringed vs. brought LAN and late posterior positivity (P600) *sept vs. walked(different verbs) LAN and late posterior positivity (P600) 
visual incorrect suffix and incorrect stem vowel single words *bringed vs. brought late (posterior) positivity *sept vs. walked(different verbs) late positivity 
Weyerts et al., 1996  German long lag visual unprimed vs. identity single words getanzt (unprimed) vs. getanzt–getanzt N400 and post-N400 range geboten (unprimed) vs. geboten–geboten N400, later onset than regular 
long lag visual unprimed vs. infinitive single words getanzt (unprimed) vs. tanzen–getanzt N400 and post-N400 range geboten (unprimed) vs. bieten–geboten N400, later onset than regular 
Münte et al., 1999  English long lag visual unrelated vs. past tense single words walked–stretch vs. stretched–stretch N400 and right fronto-temporal positivity sang–fight vs. fought–fight right centroparietal positivity 
Marslen-Wilson & Tyler, 1998  English immediate cross-modal unrelated vs. past tense single words locked–jump vs. jumped–jump N400 and LAN shows–find vs. found–find N400 and LAN 
Rodriguez-Fornells et al., 2002  Spanish long lag visual unrelated vs. present tense single words ando–lavar vs. ando–andar N400 entiendo–querer vs. entiendo–entender no effect 
Justus et al., 2008  English immediate auditory unrelated vs. past tense single words worked–seem vs. looked–look N400 and late N400 suffixed irregular: had–fight vs. slept–sleep N400 and late N400 
vowel change irregular: bound–wake vs. spoke–speak N400, late N400 (strongest priming effect) 
Kielar & Joanisse, 2009  English immediate visual unrelated vs. past tense single words rented–walk vs. walked–walk N400 (strongest priming effect) suffixed irregular: wept–feel vs. felt–feel N400 (intermediate priming effect) 
vowel change irregular: sang–write vs. wrote–write N400 (weakest priming effect) 
immediate cross-modal unrelated vs. past tense single words rented–walk vs. walked–walk N400 (strongest priming effect) suffixed irregular: wept–feel vs. felt–feel N400 (intermediate priming effect) 
vowel change irregular: sang–write vs. wrote–write N400 (weakest priming effect) 
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