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Table 2. 

German Participle Formation According to Stem and Suffix Combinations

Verb Type
Citation Form
Participle
Stem
Suffix
n
Regular lernen (learn) gelernt infinitive -t 1700 
Irregular 1 backen (bake) gebacken infinitive -en 41 
Irregular 2 trinken (drink) getrunken vowel change -en 144 
Irregular 3 denken (think) gedacht vowel change -t 15 
Verb Type
Citation Form
Participle
Stem
Suffix
n
Regular lernen (learn) gelernt infinitive -t 1700 
Irregular 1 backen (bake) gebacken infinitive -en 41 
Irregular 2 trinken (drink) getrunken vowel change -en 144 
Irregular 3 denken (think) gedacht vowel change -t 15 

Regular and irregular participle formation is concatenative and shows the same affixation: The prefix ge- and one of two suffixes, -t or -en, are attached to a stem. The prefix ge- is used for all verb types; its distribution is exclusively prosodically conditioned (Wiese, 1996). All examples are given in their orthographic form, hence -en suffix, and not in their phonetic form, where the letter e is realized as schwa or is not realized at all. n = type count of monomorphemic verbs in CELEX (Baayen et al., 1993).

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