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Table 1. 

Sleep-dependent Modulation of Learning-related Brain Activity

Voxel Level
Cluster Extent
Region
Side
x
y
z
Z
KE Cluster
Additional Activated Areas in the Cluster
Cuneus**  −82 40 4.78 235 Right/left superior parietal lobule (7M, 7P) 
Fusiform Left −28 −62 −6 4.41 344 Left area 17 
Left V4 
Left area 18 
Posterior parietal furrow Left −16 −54 64 4.18 242 Left superior parietal lobule (7A, 5L), area 1, 2 
Ventrolateral pFC (inferior frontal gyrus) Right 44 12 18 4.10 123 Right area 44 
Precuneus Right −54 52 4.09 67 Right superior parietal lobule (5M, 5L, 7A) 
Thalamus Right 14 −4 14 3.94 197 – 
Dorsolateral pFC (middle frontal gyrus) Right 36 46 3.98 80 – 
Dorsolateral pFC (middle frontal gyrus) Left −22 38 24 3.98 80 – 
Thalamus Right 10 −30 −8 3.77 27  
Dorsolateral pFC (middle frontal gyrus) Right 26 38 24 3.60 47  
Precentral gyrus Left −48 −2 34 3.69 49 Left area 4p, 6, 4a, 3a 
Cerebellum (crus 1) Left −10 −80 −26 3.58 72 – 
Cerebellum Right −62 −4 3.34 53 Right area 18 
Right V3v 
Cerebellum Left −34 −62 −30 3.41 22 – 
Amygdala Left −30 −14 3.50 64 Left amygdala (LB, SF, CM) 
Cuneus°1 Right 32 −74 30 3.51 10  
Mesencephalon°2 Right −30 −10 3.21  
Thalamus°3 Right 10 −30 −8 3.77 22  
Caudate nucleus°4 Left −24 −10 22 3.80 41  
Caudate nucleus°5 Right 14 −6 14 3.87 83  
Voxel Level
Cluster Extent
Region
Side
x
y
z
Z
KE Cluster
Additional Activated Areas in the Cluster
Cuneus**  −82 40 4.78 235 Right/left superior parietal lobule (7M, 7P) 
Fusiform Left −28 −62 −6 4.41 344 Left area 17 
Left V4 
Left area 18 
Posterior parietal furrow Left −16 −54 64 4.18 242 Left superior parietal lobule (7A, 5L), area 1, 2 
Ventrolateral pFC (inferior frontal gyrus) Right 44 12 18 4.10 123 Right area 44 
Precuneus Right −54 52 4.09 67 Right superior parietal lobule (5M, 5L, 7A) 
Thalamus Right 14 −4 14 3.94 197 – 
Dorsolateral pFC (middle frontal gyrus) Right 36 46 3.98 80 – 
Dorsolateral pFC (middle frontal gyrus) Left −22 38 24 3.98 80 – 
Thalamus Right 10 −30 −8 3.77 27  
Dorsolateral pFC (middle frontal gyrus) Right 26 38 24 3.60 47  
Precentral gyrus Left −48 −2 34 3.69 49 Left area 4p, 6, 4a, 3a 
Cerebellum (crus 1) Left −10 −80 −26 3.58 72 – 
Cerebellum Right −62 −4 3.34 53 Right area 18 
Right V3v 
Cerebellum Left −34 −62 −30 3.41 22 – 
Amygdala Left −30 −14 3.50 64 Left amygdala (LB, SF, CM) 
Cuneus°1 Right 32 −74 30 3.51 10  
Mesencephalon°2 Right −30 −10 3.21  
Thalamus°3 Right 10 −30 −8 3.77 22  
Caudate nucleus°4 Left −24 −10 22 3.80 41  
Caudate nucleus°5 Right 14 −6 14 3.87 83  

Effect of posttraining sleep on the evolution of NG-related responses: comparison of overnight changes of activity (S2 vs. S3) in RS vs. SD participants, masked exclusively by the difference between SD and RS groups at presleep session S2. x, y, and z are standard MNI coordinates (mm). Z = Z statistic value. KE cluster = cluster extent of the activation (in number of voxels). Reported activations are statistically significant at the voxel level, p < .001 (uncorrected for multiple comparisons), unless specified otherwise. Activation marked by a “**” is statistically significant at the voxel level, pcorr < .05 after correction for multiple comparisons in the whole-brain volume. Activations marked by a “°” are statistically significant at the voxel level, psvc < .05, after correction in a small volume (radius = 10 mm) drawn around the coordinates of interest taken from the literature: °1right cuneus [26, −70, 24] (Peigneux et al., 2003), °2right mesencephalon [−2, −36, −18] (Maquet et al., 2000), °3right thalamus [(−)16, −34, −4] (Peigneux et al., 2003), °4left caudate nucleus [−16, −6, 24] (Peigneux et al., 2003), and °5right caudate nucleus [18, −12, 20] (Peigneux et al., 2003). LB = laterobasal; SF = superficial; CM = centromedial.

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