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Table 1. 

Regions Exhibiting a Lowered Level of L1 Activation in the Highest-achieving L1 Learners (L1 Posttest −)

PredictorClusterExtent (Vox)RegionxyzZ Statistic
L1 posttest (−)       >1.96 
3134 R planum polare 42 −18 4.51 
R frontal operculum 46 16 3.51 
R temporal pole 30 18 −50 3.4 
R superior temporal gyrus* 68 −6 3.4 
R middle temporal gyrus 72 −12 −6 3.39 
1137 L supramarginal gyrus −58 −52 28 4.13 
L angular gyrus −38 −50 28 3.56 
L lateral occipital complex −34 −58 34 3.52 
11910 R inferior temporal gyrus 62 −50 −12 3.81 
R temporal occipital fusiform 40 −46 −20 3.75 
R angular gyrus 48 −52 26 3.74 
L posterior cingulate gyrus −10 −52 26 3.69 
L precuneus −12 −58 3.52 
1869 L central operculum −42 −8 12 3.79 
L putamen −34 −6 −4 3.45 
L insula −44 −4 3.38 
L frontal pole −36 40 34 3.3 
L inferior frontal gyrus −40 24 12 3.12 
L1 posttest (−)       >2.6 
474 R planum polare 42 −18 4.51 
R putamen 34 −12 3.21 
R temporal pole 30 10 −32 2.9 
342 L supramarginal gyrus −58 −52 28 4.13 
L angular gyrus −38 −50 28 3.56 
L lateral occipital complex −34 −58 34 3.52 
288 R inferior temporal gyrus 62 −50 −12 3.81 
R temporal occipital fusiform 40 −46 −20 3.75 
R middle temporal gyrus 54 −50 −4 3.24 
673 L posterior cingulate gyrus −10 −52 26 3.69 
L precuneus −12 −58 3.52 
PredictorClusterExtent (Vox)RegionxyzZ Statistic
L1 posttest (−)       >1.96 
3134 R planum polare 42 −18 4.51 
R frontal operculum 46 16 3.51 
R temporal pole 30 18 −50 3.4 
R superior temporal gyrus* 68 −6 3.4 
R middle temporal gyrus 72 −12 −6 3.39 
1137 L supramarginal gyrus −58 −52 28 4.13 
L angular gyrus −38 −50 28 3.56 
L lateral occipital complex −34 −58 34 3.52 
11910 R inferior temporal gyrus 62 −50 −12 3.81 
R temporal occipital fusiform 40 −46 −20 3.75 
R angular gyrus 48 −52 26 3.74 
L posterior cingulate gyrus −10 −52 26 3.69 
L precuneus −12 −58 3.52 
1869 L central operculum −42 −8 12 3.79 
L putamen −34 −6 −4 3.45 
L insula −44 −4 3.38 
L frontal pole −36 40 34 3.3 
L inferior frontal gyrus −40 24 12 3.12 
L1 posttest (−)       >2.6 
474 R planum polare 42 −18 4.51 
R putamen 34 −12 3.21 
R temporal pole 30 10 −32 2.9 
342 L supramarginal gyrus −58 −52 28 4.13 
L angular gyrus −38 −50 28 3.56 
L lateral occipital complex −34 −58 34 3.52 
288 R inferior temporal gyrus 62 −50 −12 3.81 
R temporal occipital fusiform 40 −46 −20 3.75 
R middle temporal gyrus 54 −50 −4 3.24 
673 L posterior cingulate gyrus −10 −52 26 3.69 
L precuneus −12 −58 3.52 

For each significant cluster, we present up to the top 5 activation peaks in anatomically distinct areas (in MNI coordinate space) as well as their corresponding peak Z statistics. The first four clusters represent significant learning-related activation observed with a cluster-determining threshold of Z > 1.96; the subsequent four clusters represent the same activation map, this time thresholded at Z > 2.6.

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