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Table 1. 

Demographic and Baseline Clinical Characteristics of Participants (Engel Classes 1 and 2 Only, N = 32, Mean ± SD)

All ParticipantsLeft ATLRRight ATLRp
Demographic and Clinical Characteristics 
Number of participants N = 32 N = 14 N = 18  
Age at surgery (years, range) 35.53 (16–63) 36.57 ± 9.35 34.72 ± 13.54 .666 
Sex (male/female) 17/15 8/6 9/9 .688 
Education (years) 15.0 ± 2.77 15.00 ± 2.08 15.00 ± 3.12 1.00 
Ethnicity 
 White 23 (71.9%) 10 13 .735 (Fisher's exact) 
 Black 4 (12.5%) 
 Hispanic 4 (12.5%) 
 Asian 1 (3.1%) 
Handedness (right/left/ambidextrous) 23/8/1 10/4/0 13/4/1 .636 
Age at seizure onset (years) 15.06 (1–47) 15.71 ± 10.36 14.56 ± 11.24 .767 
Duration of seizures (years) 18.88 ± 14.18 18.93 ± 13.34 18.83 ± 15.18 .985 
Years of follow-up after surgery (years) 2.41 ± 1.45 2.51 ± 1.46 2.34 ± 1.50 .763 
Mesial temporal sclerosis 13/17 (40.6%/53.1%) 4/9 9/8 .283 
Engel class outcome 
 Class 1 27 (84.4%) 11 16 .631 
 Class 2 5 (15.6%) 
 
Baseline Neuropsychological Testing 
FSIQ 99.04 ± 13.76 98.83 ± 13.99 99.19 ± 14.05 .948 
 Verbal Comprehension Index 100.5 ± 19.82 94.36 ± 18.98 105.28 ± 19.64 .124 
 Perceptual Reasoning Index 98.84 ± 15.39 101.14 ± 17.77 97.06 ± 13.51 .465 
 Working Memory Index 93.78 ± 18.64 99.50 ± 10.06 89.50 ± 22.49 .164 
 Processing Speed Index 93.72 ± 19.71 97.75 ± 10.91 90.88 ± 24.02 .365 
Verbal Learning 46.81 ± 12.89 45.14 ± 14.69 46.33 ± 9.94 .404 
Verbal SDFR 8.85 ± 3.53 8.21 ± 3.42 8.58 ± 3.58 .190 
Verbal LDFR 9.42 ± 3.67 8.71 ± 3.47 9.58 ± 3.42 .346 
Visual Confrontation Naming (BNT) 50.20 ± 7.30 48.93 ± 6.96 51.31 ± 7.64 .382 
Visual Memory (RCFT delay trial) 12.90 ± 6.48 14.00 ± 7.47 12.17 ± 5.84 .458 
BDI 9.26 ± 5.73 9.15 ± 5.90 9.36 ± 5.79 .929 
BAI 11.32 ± 11.35 12.07 ± 12.69 10.57 ± 10.26 .734 
Left Wada memory score 9.03 ± 3.52 7.64 ± 3.97 10.18± 2.72 .055 
Right Wada memory score 7.32 ± 3.32 8.29 ± 2.64 6.47 ± 3.70 .138 
Wada language (left/right/bilateral) 30/0/1 13/0/1 17/0/0 .452 (Fisher's exact) 
Postsurgical Neuropsychological Testing 
FSIQ 99.61 ± 14.61 99.25 ± 11.35 99.88 ± 17.02 .913 
 Verbal Comprehension Index 103.93 ± 15.02 101.00 ± 9.83 106.00 ± 17.82 .387 
 Perceptual Reasoning Index 99.45 ± 13.58 101.33 ± 11.74 98.12 ± 14.95 .540 
 Working Memory Index 100.56 ± 14.76 103.45 ± 13.78 98.56 ± 15.50 .408 
 Processing Speed Index 97.18 ± 14.01 96.42 ± 14.79 97.75 ± 13.87 .809 
Verbal Learning 42.56 ± 10.81 39.08 ± 10.77 46.33 ± 9.94 .094 
Verbal SDFR 6.92 ± 3.67 5.38 ± 3.15 8.58 ± 3.58 .026 
Verbal LDFR 7.60 ±4.26 5.77 ± 4.30 9.58 ± 3.34 .022 
Visual Confrontation Naming (BNT) 48.30 ± 8.81 44.36 ± 9.52 52.54 ± 5.70 .012 
Visual Memory (RCFT delay trial) 10.97 ± 5.17 12.69 ± 5.66 9.56 ± 4.43 .106 
BDI 8.13 ± 7.32 9.36 ± 8.23 7.12 ± 6.56 .406 
BAI 6.84 ± 6.40 8.29 ± 7.97 5.64 ± 4.67 .260 
All ParticipantsLeft ATLRRight ATLRp
Demographic and Clinical Characteristics 
Number of participants N = 32 N = 14 N = 18  
Age at surgery (years, range) 35.53 (16–63) 36.57 ± 9.35 34.72 ± 13.54 .666 
Sex (male/female) 17/15 8/6 9/9 .688 
Education (years) 15.0 ± 2.77 15.00 ± 2.08 15.00 ± 3.12 1.00 
Ethnicity 
 White 23 (71.9%) 10 13 .735 (Fisher's exact) 
 Black 4 (12.5%) 
 Hispanic 4 (12.5%) 
 Asian 1 (3.1%) 
Handedness (right/left/ambidextrous) 23/8/1 10/4/0 13/4/1 .636 
Age at seizure onset (years) 15.06 (1–47) 15.71 ± 10.36 14.56 ± 11.24 .767 
Duration of seizures (years) 18.88 ± 14.18 18.93 ± 13.34 18.83 ± 15.18 .985 
Years of follow-up after surgery (years) 2.41 ± 1.45 2.51 ± 1.46 2.34 ± 1.50 .763 
Mesial temporal sclerosis 13/17 (40.6%/53.1%) 4/9 9/8 .283 
Engel class outcome 
 Class 1 27 (84.4%) 11 16 .631 
 Class 2 5 (15.6%) 
 
Baseline Neuropsychological Testing 
FSIQ 99.04 ± 13.76 98.83 ± 13.99 99.19 ± 14.05 .948 
 Verbal Comprehension Index 100.5 ± 19.82 94.36 ± 18.98 105.28 ± 19.64 .124 
 Perceptual Reasoning Index 98.84 ± 15.39 101.14 ± 17.77 97.06 ± 13.51 .465 
 Working Memory Index 93.78 ± 18.64 99.50 ± 10.06 89.50 ± 22.49 .164 
 Processing Speed Index 93.72 ± 19.71 97.75 ± 10.91 90.88 ± 24.02 .365 
Verbal Learning 46.81 ± 12.89 45.14 ± 14.69 46.33 ± 9.94 .404 
Verbal SDFR 8.85 ± 3.53 8.21 ± 3.42 8.58 ± 3.58 .190 
Verbal LDFR 9.42 ± 3.67 8.71 ± 3.47 9.58 ± 3.42 .346 
Visual Confrontation Naming (BNT) 50.20 ± 7.30 48.93 ± 6.96 51.31 ± 7.64 .382 
Visual Memory (RCFT delay trial) 12.90 ± 6.48 14.00 ± 7.47 12.17 ± 5.84 .458 
BDI 9.26 ± 5.73 9.15 ± 5.90 9.36 ± 5.79 .929 
BAI 11.32 ± 11.35 12.07 ± 12.69 10.57 ± 10.26 .734 
Left Wada memory score 9.03 ± 3.52 7.64 ± 3.97 10.18± 2.72 .055 
Right Wada memory score 7.32 ± 3.32 8.29 ± 2.64 6.47 ± 3.70 .138 
Wada language (left/right/bilateral) 30/0/1 13/0/1 17/0/0 .452 (Fisher's exact) 
Postsurgical Neuropsychological Testing 
FSIQ 99.61 ± 14.61 99.25 ± 11.35 99.88 ± 17.02 .913 
 Verbal Comprehension Index 103.93 ± 15.02 101.00 ± 9.83 106.00 ± 17.82 .387 
 Perceptual Reasoning Index 99.45 ± 13.58 101.33 ± 11.74 98.12 ± 14.95 .540 
 Working Memory Index 100.56 ± 14.76 103.45 ± 13.78 98.56 ± 15.50 .408 
 Processing Speed Index 97.18 ± 14.01 96.42 ± 14.79 97.75 ± 13.87 .809 
Verbal Learning 42.56 ± 10.81 39.08 ± 10.77 46.33 ± 9.94 .094 
Verbal SDFR 6.92 ± 3.67 5.38 ± 3.15 8.58 ± 3.58 .026 
Verbal LDFR 7.60 ±4.26 5.77 ± 4.30 9.58 ± 3.34 .022 
Visual Confrontation Naming (BNT) 48.30 ± 8.81 44.36 ± 9.52 52.54 ± 5.70 .012 
Visual Memory (RCFT delay trial) 10.97 ± 5.17 12.69 ± 5.66 9.56 ± 4.43 .106 
BDI 8.13 ± 7.32 9.36 ± 8.23 7.12 ± 6.56 .406 
BAI 6.84 ± 6.40 8.29 ± 7.97 5.64 ± 4.67 .260 

Independent samples t test comparison performed with p values listed.

*

Significant after correction for multiple comparisons.

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