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Table 4. 

Categorical Responses to Object Sounds Specific to the Blind

Areakx (mm)y (mm)z (mm)Zpx (mm)y (mm)z (mm)Zp
Between-group Effects: [EB > SC]Main Effect in EB
[O > SO] [O > SO] 
L inferior occipital G 7443 −26 −92 5.46 .001* −20 −94 5.35 .001* 
L middle/inferior occipital G −36 −82 5.45 0.001* −32 −84 −4 5.14 0.003* 
L fusiform G −36 −68 −14 4.86 .011* −34 −68 −18 5.82 <.001* 
R inferior OTC 6075 38 −66 −4 4.75 .018* 38 −66 −6 4.54 .039* 
R inferior occipital G 36 −84 4.57 .035* 34 −82 −4 4.52 .043* 
R fusiform S 34 −54 −16 4.52 .042* 38 −56 −20 5.31 .002* 
 
[O > V] [O > V] 
L middle occipital G 15494 −26 −92 5.57 <.001* −24 −94 5.39 .001* 
L middle/inferior occipital G −28 −78 −4 5.32 0.001* −26 −78 −4 5.54 0.001* 
L superior occipital G −26 −94 26 5.22 .002* −26 −94 24 5.34 .001* 
 
[O > SO] ∩ [O > V] [O > SO] ∩ [O > V] 
L middle occipital G 5582 −26 −92 5.46 .001* −24 −94 5.31 .001* 
L middle/inferior occipital G −36 −82 −2 5.21 0.002* −30 −80 −6 5.14 0.003* 
L lingual G −20 −74 4.49 .047* −20 −72 4.83 .013* 
R inferior OTC 4821 38 −66 −4 4.75 .018* 38 −72 4.60 .031* 
R inferior occipital G 36 −80 −2 4.40 .001 36 −76 −4 4.15 .002 
R middle occipital G 40 −86 10 4.29 .001 40 −82 10 3.75 .008 
Areakx (mm)y (mm)z (mm)Zpx (mm)y (mm)z (mm)Zp
Between-group Effects: [EB > SC]Main Effect in EB
[O > SO] [O > SO] 
L inferior occipital G 7443 −26 −92 5.46 .001* −20 −94 5.35 .001* 
L middle/inferior occipital G −36 −82 5.45 0.001* −32 −84 −4 5.14 0.003* 
L fusiform G −36 −68 −14 4.86 .011* −34 −68 −18 5.82 <.001* 
R inferior OTC 6075 38 −66 −4 4.75 .018* 38 −66 −6 4.54 .039* 
R inferior occipital G 36 −84 4.57 .035* 34 −82 −4 4.52 .043* 
R fusiform S 34 −54 −16 4.52 .042* 38 −56 −20 5.31 .002* 
 
[O > V] [O > V] 
L middle occipital G 15494 −26 −92 5.57 <.001* −24 −94 5.39 .001* 
L middle/inferior occipital G −28 −78 −4 5.32 0.001* −26 −78 −4 5.54 0.001* 
L superior occipital G −26 −94 26 5.22 .002* −26 −94 24 5.34 .001* 
 
[O > SO] ∩ [O > V] [O > SO] ∩ [O > V] 
L middle occipital G 5582 −26 −92 5.46 .001* −24 −94 5.31 .001* 
L middle/inferior occipital G −36 −82 −2 5.21 0.002* −30 −80 −6 5.14 0.003* 
L lingual G −20 −74 4.49 .047* −20 −72 4.83 .013* 
R inferior OTC 4821 38 −66 −4 4.75 .018* 38 −72 4.60 .031* 
R inferior occipital G 36 −80 −2 4.40 .001 36 −76 −4 4.15 .002 
R middle occipital G 40 −86 10 4.29 .001 40 −82 10 3.75 .008 

Coordinates reported in this table are significant (p < .05 FWE) after correction over small spherical volumes (SVC) or over (*) the whole brain. k represents the number of voxels when displayed at p(unc) < .001. EB = early blind; SC = sighted controls; V = voices; O = objects; SV = scrambled voices; SO = scrambled objects; L = left; R = right; G = gyrus; S = sulcus; OTC = occipitotemporal cortex. For each region significant in the between-group contrasts (left-hand table), corresponding coordinates significant in the main effect in the blind are listed in the right-hand table. None of these regions were activated in the sighted group, indicating that the between-group effects (blind > sighted) are driven by these regions being responsive only in the blind group. Two regions (underlined in the left-hand table) showed selective deactivation in the sighted group, thus contributing to the between-group effects observed in the R inferior OTC [34 −68 4] (z = 3.21) and in the L middle occipital G [−24 −84 6] (z = 3.25). Coordinates used for SVC are as follows (in MNI space): R middle occipital G: [44 −74 8] (Gougoux et al., 2009). Regions listed showing specific responses to objects (relative to both scrambled objects and voices) in blind compared with sighted are depicted in Figure 4A.

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