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Table 1. 

Differences in the Subjective and Cardiovascular Stress Responses between the Stress and Control Groups

  Control Stress 
Subjective stress response 
Discomfort 4.38 (2.03) 48.13 (5.72)** 
Pain 0.00 (0.00) 60.00 (5.99)** 
Stress 5.00 (2.24) 45.00 (6.19)** 
Difficulty to keep hand immersed 1.88 (1.88) 57.50 (5.52)** 
  
Systolic blood pressure (mm Hg) 
Pretreatment 123.27 (2.74) 125.92 (4.44) 
During treatment 124.63 (2.58) 148.48 (4.05)** 
Posttreatment 120.06 (2.65) 128.67 (3.73) 
  
Diastolic blood pressure (mm Hg) 
Pretreatment 71.20 (2.82) 66.04 (2.88) 
During treatment 73.98 (2.62) 87.48 (2.24)** 
Posttreatment 66.44 (2.71) 69.27 (2.97) 
  
Heart rate (BPM) 
Pretreatment 70.38 (2.65) 67.27 (3.30) 
During treatment 69.46 (3.24) 75.19 (3.61)* 
Posttreatment 68.48 (2.49) 65.46 (3.30) 
  Control Stress 
Subjective stress response 
Discomfort 4.38 (2.03) 48.13 (5.72)** 
Pain 0.00 (0.00) 60.00 (5.99)** 
Stress 5.00 (2.24) 45.00 (6.19)** 
Difficulty to keep hand immersed 1.88 (1.88) 57.50 (5.52)** 
  
Systolic blood pressure (mm Hg) 
Pretreatment 123.27 (2.74) 125.92 (4.44) 
During treatment 124.63 (2.58) 148.48 (4.05)** 
Posttreatment 120.06 (2.65) 128.67 (3.73) 
  
Diastolic blood pressure (mm Hg) 
Pretreatment 71.20 (2.82) 66.04 (2.88) 
During treatment 73.98 (2.62) 87.48 (2.24)** 
Posttreatment 66.44 (2.71) 69.27 (2.97) 
  
Heart rate (BPM) 
Pretreatment 70.38 (2.65) 67.27 (3.30) 
During treatment 69.46 (3.24) 75.19 (3.61)* 
Posttreatment 68.48 (2.49) 65.46 (3.30) 

Differences in subjective ratings were tested in planned t tests; differences in the cardiovascular responses were tested with Bonferroni-corrected post hoc t tests. Values represent mean (±SEM).

*

p < .1.

**

p < .001.

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