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Table 2. 

Properties of Each Word Type

Word PropertyType of Wordp
SceneObjectAbstractScene vs. ObjectScene vs. AbstractObject vs. Abstract
Lexical Criteria 
No. of lettersa 6.73 (1.99) 6.64 (1.91) 6.75 (1.97) .64 .90 .55 
No. of phonemesa 5.61 (1.89) 5.41 (1.71) 5.66 (1.72) .25 .77 .13 
No. of syllablesa 2.09 (0.85) 2.06 (0.79) 2.16 (0.77) .68 .38 .18 
No. of orthographic neighborsa 2.57 (4.97) 3.09 (4.96) 2.35 (4.33) .28 .62 .10 
No. of phonological neighborsa 6.28 (11.71) 7.61 (11.80) 6.12 (11.31) .23 .89 .18 
No. of phonological neighbors (including homophones)a 6.88 (12.59) 8.13 (12.48) 6.66 (11.86) .30 .85 .21 
No. of phonographic neighborsa 1.53 (3.51) 1.78 (3.48) 1.46 (3.21) .45 .84 .32 
No. of phonographic neighbors (including homophones)a 1.61 (3.67) 1.96 (3.63) 1.49 (3.36) .32 .72 .16 
Word frequency: Zipfb 3.90 (0.71) 3.80 (0.61) 3.88 (0.82) .12 .77 .27 
Age of acquisitionc 7.69 (2.14) 7.40 (2.12) 9.78 (2.46) .15 <.001 <.001 
  
Emotional Constructs 
Valenced 5.68 (1.08) 5.63 (1.02) 5.58 (1.12) .63 .34 .61 
No. of positive wordsd,e 171 (78.44%) 173 (79.6%) 167 (76.61%) .81 .65 .49 
Hedonic valenced,f 1.07 (0.69) 0.98 (0.68) 1.04 (0.70) .18 .69 .34 
Arousald 4.07 (0.96) 3.99 (0.87) 4.04 (0.71) .34 .73 .46 
  
Imagery 
Concretenessg 4.65 (0.22) 4.68 (0.22) 1.83 (0.29) .11 <.001 <.001 
Imageabilityh 4.38 (0.29) 4.41 (0.32) 1.53 (0.20) .31 <.001 <.001 
Word PropertyType of Wordp
SceneObjectAbstractScene vs. ObjectScene vs. AbstractObject vs. Abstract
Lexical Criteria 
No. of lettersa 6.73 (1.99) 6.64 (1.91) 6.75 (1.97) .64 .90 .55 
No. of phonemesa 5.61 (1.89) 5.41 (1.71) 5.66 (1.72) .25 .77 .13 
No. of syllablesa 2.09 (0.85) 2.06 (0.79) 2.16 (0.77) .68 .38 .18 
No. of orthographic neighborsa 2.57 (4.97) 3.09 (4.96) 2.35 (4.33) .28 .62 .10 
No. of phonological neighborsa 6.28 (11.71) 7.61 (11.80) 6.12 (11.31) .23 .89 .18 
No. of phonological neighbors (including homophones)a 6.88 (12.59) 8.13 (12.48) 6.66 (11.86) .30 .85 .21 
No. of phonographic neighborsa 1.53 (3.51) 1.78 (3.48) 1.46 (3.21) .45 .84 .32 
No. of phonographic neighbors (including homophones)a 1.61 (3.67) 1.96 (3.63) 1.49 (3.36) .32 .72 .16 
Word frequency: Zipfb 3.90 (0.71) 3.80 (0.61) 3.88 (0.82) .12 .77 .27 
Age of acquisitionc 7.69 (2.14) 7.40 (2.12) 9.78 (2.46) .15 <.001 <.001 
  
Emotional Constructs 
Valenced 5.68 (1.08) 5.63 (1.02) 5.58 (1.12) .63 .34 .61 
No. of positive wordsd,e 171 (78.44%) 173 (79.6%) 167 (76.61%) .81 .65 .49 
Hedonic valenced,f 1.07 (0.69) 0.98 (0.68) 1.04 (0.70) .18 .69 .34 
Arousald 4.07 (0.96) 3.99 (0.87) 4.04 (0.71) .34 .73 .46 
  
Imagery 
Concretenessg 4.65 (0.22) 4.68 (0.22) 1.83 (0.29) .11 <.001 <.001 
Imageabilityh 4.38 (0.29) 4.41 (0.32) 1.53 (0.20) .31 <.001 <.001 

Means (SDs). Two-tailed p values for t tests (χ2 test for the number of positive words). Note that each comparison was assessed separately to provide a greater opportunity for any differences between conditions to be identified.

a

From the English Lexion Project (Balota et al., 2007: exlexicon.wustl.edu).

b

From van Heuven et al. (2014). The Zipf scale is a standardized measure of word frequency using a logarithmic scale. Values go from 1 (low-frequency words) to 6 (high-frequency words).

c

From Kuperman et al. (2012).

d

From Warriner et al. (2013).

e

Positive words were those that had a valence score greater than or equal to 5.

f

Hedonic valence is the distance from neutrality (i.e., from 5), regardless of being positive or negative, as per Vigliocco et al. (2014).

g

From Brysbaert et al. (2014).

h

Collected for the current study as detailed in the Methods.

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