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Table 1. 
Neuropsychological Battery Results Expressed as Means (SD)
TestAll Participants (N = 32)Participants Included in Data Analysis (n = 30)
MoCA (/30) 25.3 (2.9) Slightly impaired 25.3 (2.9) Slightly impaired 
WMS-IV Logical Memory 
 Immediate Recall Scaled Score (/20) 11.3 (2.8) 63.7%ile 11.4 (2.9) 64.2%ile 
 Delayed Recall Scaled Score (/20) 10.8 (2.7) 59.1%ile 10.9 (2.8) 59.3%ile 
 Recognition Accuracy 78.7% (17.8%) 81.8% (11.1%) 
Trails A 43.9 sec (14.1 sec) 40.9%ile 44.1 sec (14.4 sec) 40.6%ile 
Trails B 98.90 sec (35.3 sec) 52.0%ile 95.5 sec (34.5 sec) 53.2%ile 
Digit Span Forward Score (/16) 10.1 (2.3) 50.6%ile 10.2 (2.3) 51.9%ile 
Digit Span Backward Score (/14) 6.3 (2.3) 26.9%ile 6.4 (2.3) 28.5%ile 
Rey–Osterrieth Complex Figure 
 Copy (/32) 26.8 (5.7) 27.9%ile 26.6 (5.8) 27.6%ile 
 Immediate Recall (/32) 11.7 (6.5) 37.2%ile 12.1 (6.4) 39.5%ile 
 Delayed Recall (/32) 10.4 (6.6) 32.6%ile 10.7 (6.7) 34.3%ile 
Weschler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence 
 Vocabulary (/80) 58.4 (10.1) 63.9%ile 58.7 (10.1) 64.8%ile 
 Similarities (/48) 35.8 (5.2) 74.0%ile 36.0 (5.2) 74.9%ile 
 Matrix Reasoning (/32) 20.7 (6.8) 72.2%ile 20.6 (7.0) 71.5%ile 
 Block Design (/71) 28.8 (14.7) 52.9%ile 29.3 (14.9) 53.6%ile 
Visual Object and Spatial Perception Battery 
 Shape Detection (/20) (Cutoff score < 15) 19.1 (1.2) Pass 19.0 (1.2) Pass 
 Incomplete Letters (/20) (Cutoff score < 16) 19.2 (0.9) Pass 19.2 (0.9) Pass 
 Dot Counting (/10) (Cutoff score < 8) 9.8 (0.4) Pass 9.8 (0.4) Pass 
 Position Discrimination (/20) (Cutoff score < 18) 19.1 (1.7) Pass 19.1 (1.7) Pass 
 Number Location (/10) (Cutoff score < 7) 9.0 (1.7) Pass 9.0 (1.7) Pass 
 Cube Analysis (/10) (Cutoff score< 6) 9.4 (1.3) Pass 9.3 (1.3) Pass 
 Silhouettes (/30) (Cutoff score < 15) 19.3 (5.3) Pass 19.2 (5.4) Pass 
 Object Decision (/20) (Cutoff score < 14) 16.6 (2.0) Pass 16.7 (2.0) Pass 
 Progressive Silhouettes (/20) (Cutoff score > 15) 10.4 (3.3) Pass 10.2 (3.2) Pass 
Subjective memory rating (Memory Functioning Questionnaire, /448) 290.6 (54.2) Minimal subjective difficulties 291.9 (55.3) Minimal subjective difficulties 
TestAll Participants (N = 32)Participants Included in Data Analysis (n = 30)
MoCA (/30) 25.3 (2.9) Slightly impaired 25.3 (2.9) Slightly impaired 
WMS-IV Logical Memory 
 Immediate Recall Scaled Score (/20) 11.3 (2.8) 63.7%ile 11.4 (2.9) 64.2%ile 
 Delayed Recall Scaled Score (/20) 10.8 (2.7) 59.1%ile 10.9 (2.8) 59.3%ile 
 Recognition Accuracy 78.7% (17.8%) 81.8% (11.1%) 
Trails A 43.9 sec (14.1 sec) 40.9%ile 44.1 sec (14.4 sec) 40.6%ile 
Trails B 98.90 sec (35.3 sec) 52.0%ile 95.5 sec (34.5 sec) 53.2%ile 
Digit Span Forward Score (/16) 10.1 (2.3) 50.6%ile 10.2 (2.3) 51.9%ile 
Digit Span Backward Score (/14) 6.3 (2.3) 26.9%ile 6.4 (2.3) 28.5%ile 
Rey–Osterrieth Complex Figure 
 Copy (/32) 26.8 (5.7) 27.9%ile 26.6 (5.8) 27.6%ile 
 Immediate Recall (/32) 11.7 (6.5) 37.2%ile 12.1 (6.4) 39.5%ile 
 Delayed Recall (/32) 10.4 (6.6) 32.6%ile 10.7 (6.7) 34.3%ile 
Weschler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence 
 Vocabulary (/80) 58.4 (10.1) 63.9%ile 58.7 (10.1) 64.8%ile 
 Similarities (/48) 35.8 (5.2) 74.0%ile 36.0 (5.2) 74.9%ile 
 Matrix Reasoning (/32) 20.7 (6.8) 72.2%ile 20.6 (7.0) 71.5%ile 
 Block Design (/71) 28.8 (14.7) 52.9%ile 29.3 (14.9) 53.6%ile 
Visual Object and Spatial Perception Battery 
 Shape Detection (/20) (Cutoff score < 15) 19.1 (1.2) Pass 19.0 (1.2) Pass 
 Incomplete Letters (/20) (Cutoff score < 16) 19.2 (0.9) Pass 19.2 (0.9) Pass 
 Dot Counting (/10) (Cutoff score < 8) 9.8 (0.4) Pass 9.8 (0.4) Pass 
 Position Discrimination (/20) (Cutoff score < 18) 19.1 (1.7) Pass 19.1 (1.7) Pass 
 Number Location (/10) (Cutoff score < 7) 9.0 (1.7) Pass 9.0 (1.7) Pass 
 Cube Analysis (/10) (Cutoff score< 6) 9.4 (1.3) Pass 9.3 (1.3) Pass 
 Silhouettes (/30) (Cutoff score < 15) 19.3 (5.3) Pass 19.2 (5.4) Pass 
 Object Decision (/20) (Cutoff score < 14) 16.6 (2.0) Pass 16.7 (2.0) Pass 
 Progressive Silhouettes (/20) (Cutoff score > 15) 10.4 (3.3) Pass 10.2 (3.2) Pass 
Subjective memory rating (Memory Functioning Questionnaire, /448) 290.6 (54.2) Minimal subjective difficulties 291.9 (55.3) Minimal subjective difficulties 

Maximum and cutoff scores for tests are indicated in parentheses in the left column. Note that two participants did not complete the subjective memory questionnaire. WMS-IV = Wechsler Memory Scale, 4th ed.

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