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Table 3. 
Summary of Electrophysiological Studies Examining Crossmodal Visual Plasticity in the Deaf
Author(s)SpeciesSampleDeafness OnsetTechnique/StimuliResults p < .05
Charroó-Ruíz et al. (2013) Human 14 Deaf and 28 hearing children Mixed VEP/flashes of light   
Armstrong et al. (2002) Human 11 Deaf and 11 hearing adults Congenital VEP/apparent motion The deaf showed larger amplitude (N1) than the age-matched hearing 
Bottari et al. (2014) Human 12 Deaf and 12 hearing adults Mixed VEP/apparent motion The deaf showed neuronal response in the auditory cortex 
Chlubnová et al. (2005) Human 6 Deaf and 6 hearing adults Congenital VEP/reversing checkboard pattern and apparent motion The deaf showed smaller N1 in occipital regions than the hearing 
Hauthal et al. (2014) Human 11 Deaf and 11 hearing adults Congenital VEP/reversing checkboard pattern Deaf participants showed shorter N1 latency and larger P1 amplitude than the age-matched hearing 
Neville et al. (1983) Human 8 Deaf and 13 hearing adults Congenital VEP/intermittent rectangle The deaf showed larger N1 amplitude over the auditory cortex and larger P2 amplitude over VC than the age-matched hearing 
Kral et al. (2003) Cat 2 Deaf and 2 hearing Congenital Multi-unit/phase reversal gratings   
Land et al. (2016) Cat 4 Deaf and 4 hearing Congenital Multi-unit/flashes of light and apparent motion The deaf showed neuronal response in DZ 
Meredith and Lomber (2011) Cat 3 Deaf and 3 hearing Early onset Single unit/flashed or moving spots or bars of light The deaf showed neuronal response in AAF 
Meredith et al. (2011) Cat 3 Deaf and 3 hearing Early onset Single unit/moving bar of light The deaf showed neuronal response in FAES 
Rebillard et al. (1977) Cat 18 Deaf and 6 hearing Mixed VEP/flashes of light The deaf with complete and early deafness showed neuronal response in the auditory cortex 
Rebillard et al. (1980) Cat 26 Deaf Mixed VEP/flashes of light The deaf with complete and early deafness showed neuronal response in the auditory cortex 
Stewart and Starr (1970) Cat 1 Deaf and 3 hearing Congenital Multi-unit/flashes of light   
Meredith et al. (2012) Ferret 5 Hearing-impaired and 5 hearing Late onset Flashed or moving light or dark stimuli The deaf showed neuronal response in A1/AAF 
Meredith and Allman (2012) Ferret 3 Hearing-impaired Late onset Flashed or moving light or dark stimuli   
Hunt et al. (2006) Mouse 8 Deaf and 9 hearing Congenital Single unit/flashes of light, bars and moving circles The deaf showed neuronal response in A1 + AFF. The deaf V1 had significantly increased in size 
Author(s)SpeciesSampleDeafness OnsetTechnique/StimuliResults p < .05
Charroó-Ruíz et al. (2013) Human 14 Deaf and 28 hearing children Mixed VEP/flashes of light   
Armstrong et al. (2002) Human 11 Deaf and 11 hearing adults Congenital VEP/apparent motion The deaf showed larger amplitude (N1) than the age-matched hearing 
Bottari et al. (2014) Human 12 Deaf and 12 hearing adults Mixed VEP/apparent motion The deaf showed neuronal response in the auditory cortex 
Chlubnová et al. (2005) Human 6 Deaf and 6 hearing adults Congenital VEP/reversing checkboard pattern and apparent motion The deaf showed smaller N1 in occipital regions than the hearing 
Hauthal et al. (2014) Human 11 Deaf and 11 hearing adults Congenital VEP/reversing checkboard pattern Deaf participants showed shorter N1 latency and larger P1 amplitude than the age-matched hearing 
Neville et al. (1983) Human 8 Deaf and 13 hearing adults Congenital VEP/intermittent rectangle The deaf showed larger N1 amplitude over the auditory cortex and larger P2 amplitude over VC than the age-matched hearing 
Kral et al. (2003) Cat 2 Deaf and 2 hearing Congenital Multi-unit/phase reversal gratings   
Land et al. (2016) Cat 4 Deaf and 4 hearing Congenital Multi-unit/flashes of light and apparent motion The deaf showed neuronal response in DZ 
Meredith and Lomber (2011) Cat 3 Deaf and 3 hearing Early onset Single unit/flashed or moving spots or bars of light The deaf showed neuronal response in AAF 
Meredith et al. (2011) Cat 3 Deaf and 3 hearing Early onset Single unit/moving bar of light The deaf showed neuronal response in FAES 
Rebillard et al. (1977) Cat 18 Deaf and 6 hearing Mixed VEP/flashes of light The deaf with complete and early deafness showed neuronal response in the auditory cortex 
Rebillard et al. (1980) Cat 26 Deaf Mixed VEP/flashes of light The deaf with complete and early deafness showed neuronal response in the auditory cortex 
Stewart and Starr (1970) Cat 1 Deaf and 3 hearing Congenital Multi-unit/flashes of light   
Meredith et al. (2012) Ferret 5 Hearing-impaired and 5 hearing Late onset Flashed or moving light or dark stimuli The deaf showed neuronal response in A1/AAF 
Meredith and Allman (2012) Ferret 3 Hearing-impaired Late onset Flashed or moving light or dark stimuli   
Hunt et al. (2006) Mouse 8 Deaf and 9 hearing Congenital Single unit/flashes of light, bars and moving circles The deaf showed neuronal response in A1 + AFF. The deaf V1 had significantly increased in size 
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