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Table 4. 
Summary of Neuroimaging Studies Investigating Crossmodal Visual Plasticity in the Deaf
Author(s)SpeciesSampleDeafness OnsetTechnique/StimuliResults p < .05
Allen et al. (2013) Human 25 Deaf and 41 hearing adults Congenital MRI The deaf showed increased V1 total volume than the age-matched hearing 
Almeida et al. (2015) Human 10 Deaf and 10 hearing adults Congenital fMRI/counterphase flickering checkerboard The deaf showed auditory cortex (BA 41) activation 
Bavelier et al. (2000) Human 11 Deaf and 11 hearing adults Congenital fMRI/ apparent motion The deaf showed greater recruitment of the MT/MST and more effective connectivity between the MT/MST and the PPC when attending the periphery than age-matched hearing 
Benetti et al. (2017) Human 15 Deaf and 16 hearing adults Early onset fMRI and MEG/faces and houses The deaf showed greater recruitment of the TVA 
Bavelier et al. (2001) Human 9 Deaf and 16 hearing adults Congenital fMRI/apparent motion The deaf showed greater recruitment of the MT/MST when attending to periphery than age-matched hearing. The deaf showed greater recruitment of the PPC and the pSTS than age-matched hearing 
The deaf and the hearing signers showed stronger left hemisphere activation in V3a and MT-MST. 
The hearing nonsigners showed stronger right hemisphere activation in V3a and MT-MST 
Bola et al. (2017) Human 15 Deaf and 15 hearing adults Congenital fMRI/visual flashes The deaf showed high-level auditory cortex Te3 (overlapped marginally with A1) activation 
Cardin et al. (2013) Human 26 Deaf and 18 hearing adults Early onset fMRI/Sign based visual stimuli The deaf showed STC activation 
Fine et al. (2005) Human 6 Deaf and 12 hearing adults Mixed fMRI/apparent motion The deaf showed auditory cortex activation (BA 41, BA 42, and BA 22) 
Finney et al. (2001) Human 6 Deaf and 6 hearing adults Not informed fMRI/apparent motion The deaf showed right hemisphere auditory cortex activation (BA 41, BA 42, and BA 22, including the PT) 
Finney et al. (2003) Human 5 Deaf and 5 hearing adults Congenital MEG/a sinusoidal luminance grating The deaf showed right auditory cortex activation 
Hickok et al. (1997) Human 1 Deaf adult Congenital MEG and fMRI/reversing checkboards   
Karns et al. (2012) Human 13 Deaf and 12 hearing adults Congenital fMRI/light The deaf showed greater recruitment of the R than age-matched hearing 
Shiell et al. (2016) Human 11 Deaf adults Mixed MRI The deaf showed correlation between greater cortical thickness of the right PT with enhanced visual motion detection 
Shiell and Zatorre (2017) Human 11 Deaf adults Mixed MRI The deaf showed correlation between white matter structure (high FA and low MD and RD) of the right PT with enhanced visual motion detection 
Sadato et al. (2004) Human 7 Deaf and 19 hearing adults Mixed fMRI/dot-motion, signed-word related stimuli The deaf showed greater recruitment of the right PT during a dot-motion task, but showed greater recruitment of the left PT during signed-word related tasks than age-matched hearing 
Scott et al. (2014) Human 9 Deaf and 7 hearing adults Congenital fMRI/visual flashes The deaf showed auditory cortex activation (R area). The deaf showed increased signal change for more peripheral stimuli than perifoveal in A1, MT, STG, and PPC 
Shibata et al. (2001) Human 6 Deaf and 6 hearing adults Mixed fMRI/apparent motion The deaf showed greater recruitment of the right STG and MTG 
Smittenaar et al. (2016) Human 14 Deaf and 15 hearing adults Congenital fMRI/apparent motion The deaf showed larger V1 population receptive field and decreased V1 thickness than age-matched hearing 
Twomey et al. (2017) Human 23 Deaf and 25 hearing adults Congenital fMRI The deaf showed enhanced (BA 42 and BA 22) and Te3 activation 
Vachon et al. (2013) Human 15 Deaf and 16 hearing adults Mixed fMRI/apparent motion The deaf showed increased right auditory cortex (BA 42 and BA 22) 
Xia et al. (2017) Human 23 Deaf and 17 hearing infants Congenital Resting-state fMRI The deaf showed increased ALFF and ReHo in the occipital cortex, but showed decreased ALFF and ReHo in the auditory and language-related brain areas 
Author(s)SpeciesSampleDeafness OnsetTechnique/StimuliResults p < .05
Allen et al. (2013) Human 25 Deaf and 41 hearing adults Congenital MRI The deaf showed increased V1 total volume than the age-matched hearing 
Almeida et al. (2015) Human 10 Deaf and 10 hearing adults Congenital fMRI/counterphase flickering checkerboard The deaf showed auditory cortex (BA 41) activation 
Bavelier et al. (2000) Human 11 Deaf and 11 hearing adults Congenital fMRI/ apparent motion The deaf showed greater recruitment of the MT/MST and more effective connectivity between the MT/MST and the PPC when attending the periphery than age-matched hearing 
Benetti et al. (2017) Human 15 Deaf and 16 hearing adults Early onset fMRI and MEG/faces and houses The deaf showed greater recruitment of the TVA 
Bavelier et al. (2001) Human 9 Deaf and 16 hearing adults Congenital fMRI/apparent motion The deaf showed greater recruitment of the MT/MST when attending to periphery than age-matched hearing. The deaf showed greater recruitment of the PPC and the pSTS than age-matched hearing 
The deaf and the hearing signers showed stronger left hemisphere activation in V3a and MT-MST. 
The hearing nonsigners showed stronger right hemisphere activation in V3a and MT-MST 
Bola et al. (2017) Human 15 Deaf and 15 hearing adults Congenital fMRI/visual flashes The deaf showed high-level auditory cortex Te3 (overlapped marginally with A1) activation 
Cardin et al. (2013) Human 26 Deaf and 18 hearing adults Early onset fMRI/Sign based visual stimuli The deaf showed STC activation 
Fine et al. (2005) Human 6 Deaf and 12 hearing adults Mixed fMRI/apparent motion The deaf showed auditory cortex activation (BA 41, BA 42, and BA 22) 
Finney et al. (2001) Human 6 Deaf and 6 hearing adults Not informed fMRI/apparent motion The deaf showed right hemisphere auditory cortex activation (BA 41, BA 42, and BA 22, including the PT) 
Finney et al. (2003) Human 5 Deaf and 5 hearing adults Congenital MEG/a sinusoidal luminance grating The deaf showed right auditory cortex activation 
Hickok et al. (1997) Human 1 Deaf adult Congenital MEG and fMRI/reversing checkboards   
Karns et al. (2012) Human 13 Deaf and 12 hearing adults Congenital fMRI/light The deaf showed greater recruitment of the R than age-matched hearing 
Shiell et al. (2016) Human 11 Deaf adults Mixed MRI The deaf showed correlation between greater cortical thickness of the right PT with enhanced visual motion detection 
Shiell and Zatorre (2017) Human 11 Deaf adults Mixed MRI The deaf showed correlation between white matter structure (high FA and low MD and RD) of the right PT with enhanced visual motion detection 
Sadato et al. (2004) Human 7 Deaf and 19 hearing adults Mixed fMRI/dot-motion, signed-word related stimuli The deaf showed greater recruitment of the right PT during a dot-motion task, but showed greater recruitment of the left PT during signed-word related tasks than age-matched hearing 
Scott et al. (2014) Human 9 Deaf and 7 hearing adults Congenital fMRI/visual flashes The deaf showed auditory cortex activation (R area). The deaf showed increased signal change for more peripheral stimuli than perifoveal in A1, MT, STG, and PPC 
Shibata et al. (2001) Human 6 Deaf and 6 hearing adults Mixed fMRI/apparent motion The deaf showed greater recruitment of the right STG and MTG 
Smittenaar et al. (2016) Human 14 Deaf and 15 hearing adults Congenital fMRI/apparent motion The deaf showed larger V1 population receptive field and decreased V1 thickness than age-matched hearing 
Twomey et al. (2017) Human 23 Deaf and 25 hearing adults Congenital fMRI The deaf showed enhanced (BA 42 and BA 22) and Te3 activation 
Vachon et al. (2013) Human 15 Deaf and 16 hearing adults Mixed fMRI/apparent motion The deaf showed increased right auditory cortex (BA 42 and BA 22) 
Xia et al. (2017) Human 23 Deaf and 17 hearing infants Congenital Resting-state fMRI The deaf showed increased ALFF and ReHo in the occipital cortex, but showed decreased ALFF and ReHo in the auditory and language-related brain areas 
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