Table 3 illustrates the interaction between the polarity and modality values from the context (columns) and the modal value contributed by the marker (rows).14 Note that the resulting values do not specify polarity information, except for the contexts where contextual modality or polarity is underspecified (columns 4, 8, and 12, and last row), where the resulting polarity is u (underspecified). In all other cases, the polarity contributed by the marker will interact with that from the context as specified in Table 2. That is, positive contextual polarity will respect the original polarity denoted by the marker, whereas negative polarity will switch it. For instance, the marker impossible, which has an inherent value of ct−, in a negative context will express ps+ (e.g., it is not impossible that…). The reader can use Table 3 to verify the interactions between deny and may in Example (16a) (corresponding to the value in column 5, row 3), and suspect and may in Example (16b) (column 3, row 2).

Table 3

Modality value given contextual factuality.

Contextual factuality

Polarity = +
Polarity = −
Polarity = u
Marker
CT
PR
PS
U
CT
PR
PS
U
CT
PR
PS
U
CT ct pr ps ups pr ps uct pr ps u
PR pr pr ps upr pr ps upr pr ps u
PS ps ps ps uct pr ps ups ps ps u
U uuuuuuuuuuuu

Contextual factuality

Polarity = +
Polarity = −
Polarity = u
Marker
CT
PR
PS
U
CT
PR
PS
U
CT
PR
PS
U
CT ct pr ps ups pr ps uct pr ps u
PR pr pr ps upr pr ps upr pr ps u
PS ps ps ps uct pr ps ups ps ps u
U uuuuuuuuuuuu

Close Modal