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Table 4 

Results for the Bio-NER, word segmentation, and phrase chunking tasks. The results and the number of passes are decided based on empirical convergence (with score deviation of adjacent five passes less than 0.01). For the non-convergent case, we simply report the results based on a large enough number of training passes. As we can see, the ADF method achieves the best accuracy with the fastest convergence speed.

Bio-NER
Prec
Rec
F-score
Passes
Train-Time (sec)
LBFGS (batch) 67.69 70.20 68.92 400 152,811.34 
SGD (on-line) 70.91 72.69 71.79 91 76,549.21 
Perc (on-line) 65.37 66.95 66.15 200 20,436.69 
Avg-Perc (on-line) 68.76 72.56 70.61 37 3,928.01 
ADF (proposal) 71.71 72.80 72.25 35 27,490.24 
 
Segmentation Prec Rec F-score Passes Train-Time (sec) 
LBFGS (batch) 97.46 96.86 97.16 102 13,550.68 
SGD (on-line) 97.58 97.11 97.34 27 6,811.15 
Perc (on-line) 96.99 96.03 96.50 200 8,382.606 
Avg-Perc (on-line) 97.56 97.05 97.30 16 716.87 
ADF (proposal) 97.67 97.31 97.49 15 4,260.08
 
 
Chunking Prec Rec F-score Passes Train-Time (sec) 
LBFGS (batch) 94.57 94.09 94.33 105 797.04 
SGD (on-line) 94.48 94.04 94.26 56 903.88 
Perc (on-line) 93.66 93.31 93.48 200 543.51 
Avg-Perc (on-line) 94.34 94.04 94.19 12 33.45 
ADF (proposal) 94.66 94.38 94.52 17 282.17 
Bio-NER
Prec
Rec
F-score
Passes
Train-Time (sec)
LBFGS (batch) 67.69 70.20 68.92 400 152,811.34 
SGD (on-line) 70.91 72.69 71.79 91 76,549.21 
Perc (on-line) 65.37 66.95 66.15 200 20,436.69 
Avg-Perc (on-line) 68.76 72.56 70.61 37 3,928.01 
ADF (proposal) 71.71 72.80 72.25 35 27,490.24 
 
Segmentation Prec Rec F-score Passes Train-Time (sec) 
LBFGS (batch) 97.46 96.86 97.16 102 13,550.68 
SGD (on-line) 97.58 97.11 97.34 27 6,811.15 
Perc (on-line) 96.99 96.03 96.50 200 8,382.606 
Avg-Perc (on-line) 97.56 97.05 97.30 16 716.87 
ADF (proposal) 97.67 97.31 97.49 15 4,260.08
 
 
Chunking Prec Rec F-score Passes Train-Time (sec) 
LBFGS (batch) 94.57 94.09 94.33 105 797.04 
SGD (on-line) 94.48 94.04 94.26 56 903.88 
Perc (on-line) 93.66 93.31 93.48 200 543.51 
Avg-Perc (on-line) 94.34 94.04 94.19 12 33.45 
ADF (proposal) 94.66 94.38 94.52 17 282.17 
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