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Table 10 

Accuracy rates on three subsets of five languages of the ASK corpus (Norwegian L2) of various classification systems based on string kernels compared with a state-of-the-art approach. All subsets include samples of English, German, Polish, and Russian (EGPR). The fifth language is different in each subset. The first subset includes Spanish (SP), the second one includes Dutch (DU), and the last subset includes Serbo-Croatian (SC) as the fifth language. The accuracy rates for each subset are reported using the leave-one-out cross-validation procedure, which was repeated 20 times and the results were averaged to reduce the accuracy variation introduced by randomly selecting the documents (100 per language). The standard deviations for the computed average accuracy rates are also given. The best accuracy rate for each subset of five languages is highlighted in bold.

MethodEGPR+SPEGPR+DUEGPR+SC
LDA (Pepper 2012) 51.2% 55.0% 55.0% 
 
KRR and  67.4% ± 2.1 68.2% ± 1.8 68.1% ± 2.0 
KRR and  67.5% ± 1.7 68.6% ± 2.0 68.2% ± 2.0 
KRR and  62.2% ± 1.9 62.9% ± 1.9 61.5% ± 2.1 
KRR and  66.6% ± 2.1 67.5% ± 1.6 65.6% ± 1.4 
KRR and  66.2% ± 2.1 67.7% ± 1.9 65.7% ± 2.0 
KRR and  67.8% ± 1.9 69.0% ± 1.4 68.5% ± 1.8 
KRR and  67.5% ± 1.9 68.4% ± 2.0 67.1% ± 1.9 
 
KDA and  67.2% ± 1.7 68.7% ± 1.4 67.9% ± 1.5 
KDA and  67.3% ± 2.0 68.8% ± 1.4 67.3% ± 2.2 
KDA and  61.9% ± 1.8 63.4% ± 1.7 61.0% ± 2.0 
KDA and  66.6% ± 2.1 67.4% ± 1.5 65.7% ± 1.4 
KDA and  65.9% ± 1.8 67.2% ± 1.2 65.9% ± 1.8 
KDA and  67.4% ± 1.8 68.5% ± 1.9 67.2% ± 1.6 
KDA and  67.7% ± 1.4 69.1% ± 1.9 68.0% ± 1.3 
MethodEGPR+SPEGPR+DUEGPR+SC
LDA (Pepper 2012) 51.2% 55.0% 55.0% 
 
KRR and  67.4% ± 2.1 68.2% ± 1.8 68.1% ± 2.0 
KRR and  67.5% ± 1.7 68.6% ± 2.0 68.2% ± 2.0 
KRR and  62.2% ± 1.9 62.9% ± 1.9 61.5% ± 2.1 
KRR and  66.6% ± 2.1 67.5% ± 1.6 65.6% ± 1.4 
KRR and  66.2% ± 2.1 67.7% ± 1.9 65.7% ± 2.0 
KRR and  67.8% ± 1.9 69.0% ± 1.4 68.5% ± 1.8 
KRR and  67.5% ± 1.9 68.4% ± 2.0 67.1% ± 1.9 
 
KDA and  67.2% ± 1.7 68.7% ± 1.4 67.9% ± 1.5 
KDA and  67.3% ± 2.0 68.8% ± 1.4 67.3% ± 2.2 
KDA and  61.9% ± 1.8 63.4% ± 1.7 61.0% ± 2.0 
KDA and  66.6% ± 2.1 67.4% ± 1.5 65.7% ± 1.4 
KDA and  65.9% ± 1.8 67.2% ± 1.2 65.9% ± 1.8 
KDA and  67.4% ± 1.8 68.5% ± 1.9 67.2% ± 1.6 
KDA and  67.7% ± 1.4 69.1% ± 1.9 68.0% ± 1.3 
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