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Table 17 

Example of a question that requires reasoning over a causal structure or process.

Complex Inference — Causal or Process Reasoning
Question In the water cycle, which process occurs after condensation? (GR:5) 
Focus Word(s) (NN_condensation, 0.75) (VB_occur, 0.13) (NN_water, 0.06) (NN_cycle, 0.06) 
Issue Requires knowing that the water cycle is a stage-like process that proceeds as follows: evaporation, condensation, precipitation. The focus word extractor does not currently detect causal or process markers, and as such the focus words for the question do not include after
 
Correct Answer Precipitation 
Justification Condensation, in the water cycle, this step leads to precipitation. (Science Dictionary) 
 When the humidity reaches 100 percent it is very likely that some form of precipitation will occur, depending on the temperature. (Barrons SG) 
 
Chosen Answer Evaporation 
Justification When water vapor changes to liquid water it is called condensation. (Barrons SG) 
 Evaporation is defined as the change of water from its liquid phase to its gaseous phase. (Barrons SG) 
Complex Inference — Causal or Process Reasoning
Question In the water cycle, which process occurs after condensation? (GR:5) 
Focus Word(s) (NN_condensation, 0.75) (VB_occur, 0.13) (NN_water, 0.06) (NN_cycle, 0.06) 
Issue Requires knowing that the water cycle is a stage-like process that proceeds as follows: evaporation, condensation, precipitation. The focus word extractor does not currently detect causal or process markers, and as such the focus words for the question do not include after
 
Correct Answer Precipitation 
Justification Condensation, in the water cycle, this step leads to precipitation. (Science Dictionary) 
 When the humidity reaches 100 percent it is very likely that some form of precipitation will occur, depending on the temperature. (Barrons SG) 
 
Chosen Answer Evaporation 
Justification When water vapor changes to liquid water it is called condensation. (Barrons SG) 
 Evaporation is defined as the change of water from its liquid phase to its gaseous phase. (Barrons SG) 
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