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Table 14

Target-language adaptation. Adapting NB with data from the target language background and other language backgrounds. Results are presented by first-language background where languages are ordered by the amount of target error data available. Bold is used to indicate results where target-language adaptation is better than other-language adaptation.

Language (number of errors)F1
Native-trainedAdapted (other langs.)Adapted (target lang.)Adapted (other+target)
Articles 
Russian (440) 37.72 39.59 40.14 39.47 
Polish (397) 40.93 43.33 43.43 43.22 
Korean (374) 38.96 40.97 41.37 41.34 
Turkish (355) 39.12 40.94 40.67 40.71 
Spanish (339) 23.58 24.52 25.31 24.82 
Japanese (331) 39.82 42.82 42.80 42.74 
French(328) 26.86 27.18 27.70 27.56 
Thai (277) 34.92 35.80 35.79 35.79 
Chinese (273) 30.34 32.51 32.27 32.13 
Greek (212) 29.89 31.84 33.53 32.51 
Italian (178) 28.56 30.42 31.13 30.86 
Prepositions 
Spanish (588) 23.88 26.44 28.07 27.65 
French (390) 19.85 20.95 23.35 21.08 
Greek (244) 27.63 30.27 32.03 31.43 
Russian (229) 17.16 20.81 22.92 20.85 
Chinese (224) 23.11 25.36 24.77 24.88 
Korean (215) 19.17 22.83 20.70 23.17 
Turkish (213) 18.41 23.33 21.20 22.94 
Italian (181) 22.97 22.50 26.26 23.64 
Japanese (177) 16.13 17.99 16.66 18.32 
Polish (174) 24.25 25.86 24.42 24.52 
Thai (170) 18.12 18.87 17.23 19.64 
Verb agreement 
French (92) 38.99 38.79 42.33 39.97 
Spanish (80) 36.59 39.74 40.56 39.46 
Thai (58) 27.84 27.79 28.08 29.99 
Chinese (54) 43.39 44.71 47.78 43.71 
Polish (45) 49.00 52.51 54.71 53.18 
Japanese (43) 34.23 33.35 38.48 31.92 
Greek (34) 28.06 31.54 30.35 30.14 
Korean (29) 33.51 36.57 32.63 37.12 
Turkish (24) 36.90 41.00 39.29 40.93 
Russian (22) 27.03 31.54 30.65 29.70 
Italian (17) 21.34 25.87 24.41 26.30 
Language (number of errors)F1
Native-trainedAdapted (other langs.)Adapted (target lang.)Adapted (other+target)
Articles 
Russian (440) 37.72 39.59 40.14 39.47 
Polish (397) 40.93 43.33 43.43 43.22 
Korean (374) 38.96 40.97 41.37 41.34 
Turkish (355) 39.12 40.94 40.67 40.71 
Spanish (339) 23.58 24.52 25.31 24.82 
Japanese (331) 39.82 42.82 42.80 42.74 
French(328) 26.86 27.18 27.70 27.56 
Thai (277) 34.92 35.80 35.79 35.79 
Chinese (273) 30.34 32.51 32.27 32.13 
Greek (212) 29.89 31.84 33.53 32.51 
Italian (178) 28.56 30.42 31.13 30.86 
Prepositions 
Spanish (588) 23.88 26.44 28.07 27.65 
French (390) 19.85 20.95 23.35 21.08 
Greek (244) 27.63 30.27 32.03 31.43 
Russian (229) 17.16 20.81 22.92 20.85 
Chinese (224) 23.11 25.36 24.77 24.88 
Korean (215) 19.17 22.83 20.70 23.17 
Turkish (213) 18.41 23.33 21.20 22.94 
Italian (181) 22.97 22.50 26.26 23.64 
Japanese (177) 16.13 17.99 16.66 18.32 
Polish (174) 24.25 25.86 24.42 24.52 
Thai (170) 18.12 18.87 17.23 19.64 
Verb agreement 
French (92) 38.99 38.79 42.33 39.97 
Spanish (80) 36.59 39.74 40.56 39.46 
Thai (58) 27.84 27.79 28.08 29.99 
Chinese (54) 43.39 44.71 47.78 43.71 
Polish (45) 49.00 52.51 54.71 53.18 
Japanese (43) 34.23 33.35 38.48 31.92 
Greek (34) 28.06 31.54 30.35 30.14 
Korean (29) 33.51 36.57 32.63 37.12 
Turkish (24) 36.90 41.00 39.29 40.93 
Russian (22) 27.03 31.54 30.65 29.70 
Italian (17) 21.34 25.87 24.41 26.30 
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