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Throughout the Games Corpus, subjects made frequent use of affirmative cue words: The 5,456 instances of affirmative cue words alright, gotcha, huh, mm-hm, okay, right, uh-huh, yeah, yep, yes, and yup account for 7.8% of the total words in the corpus. Because the usage of these words seems to vary significantly in meaning, we asked three labelers to independently classify all occurrences of these 11 words in the entire corpus into the ten discourse/pragmatic functions listed in Table 1.

Table 1

Labeled discourse/pragmatic functions of affirmative cue words.

Agr Agreement. Indicates I believe what you said, and/or I agree with what you say
BC Backchannel. Indicates only I hear you and please continue, in response to another speaker's utterance. 
CBeg Cue beginning discourse segment. Marks a new segment of a discourse or a new topic. 
CEnd Cue ending discourse segment. Marks the end of a current segment of a discourse or a current topic. 
PBeg Pivot beginning (Agr+CBeg). Functions both to agree and to cue a beginning segment. 
PEnd Pivot ending (Agr+CEnd). Functions both to agree and to cue the end of the current segment. 
Mod Literal modifier. Examples: I think that'sokay; to therightof the lion
BTsk Back from a task. Indicates I've just finished what I was doing and I'm back
Chk Check. Used with the meaning Is that okay? 
Stl Stall. Used to stall for time while keeping the floor. 
Cannot decide. 
Agr Agreement. Indicates I believe what you said, and/or I agree with what you say
BC Backchannel. Indicates only I hear you and please continue, in response to another speaker's utterance. 
CBeg Cue beginning discourse segment. Marks a new segment of a discourse or a new topic. 
CEnd Cue ending discourse segment. Marks the end of a current segment of a discourse or a current topic. 
PBeg Pivot beginning (Agr+CBeg). Functions both to agree and to cue a beginning segment. 
PEnd Pivot ending (Agr+CEnd). Functions both to agree and to cue the end of the current segment. 
Mod Literal modifier. Examples: I think that'sokay; to therightof the lion
BTsk Back from a task. Indicates I've just finished what I was doing and I'm back
Chk Check. Used with the meaning Is that okay? 
Stl Stall. Used to stall for time while keeping the floor. 
Cannot decide. 

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