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Table 4. 

Summary of Linear Mixed-effects Model for RTs in the Language Decision Task

PredictorSignificanceBeta-estimateSDtpz
(Intercept) *** 1040.51 26.55 39.19 <.001 
BFG ** −14.33 3.80 −3.77 <.001 
BFE * 9.47 3.76 2.52 .01 
OLDE * −8.96 3.62 −2.47 .01 
OLDG  3.04 3.48 0.87 .38 
Response ** −19.20 3.48 −5.52 <.001 
BFG : Response  −2.30 3.70 −0.62 .5 
BFE : Response  6.93 3.65 1.90 .06 
OLDE : Response ** −15.75 3.51 −4.49 <.001 
OLDG : Response * 6.96 3.38 2.06 .04 
OLDE : OLDG  2.74 3.22 0.85 .4 
OLDE : OLDG : Response a −7.28 3.40 −2.14 .03 
PredictorSignificanceBeta-estimateSDtpz
(Intercept) *** 1040.51 26.55 39.19 <.001 
BFG ** −14.33 3.80 −3.77 <.001 
BFE * 9.47 3.76 2.52 .01 
OLDE * −8.96 3.62 −2.47 .01 
OLDG  3.04 3.48 0.87 .38 
Response ** −19.20 3.48 −5.52 <.001 
BFG : Response  −2.30 3.70 −0.62 .5 
BFE : Response  6.93 3.65 1.90 .06 
OLDE : Response ** −15.75 3.51 −4.49 <.001 
OLDG : Response * 6.96 3.38 2.06 .04 
OLDE : OLDG  2.74 3.22 0.85 .4 
OLDE : OLDG : Response a −7.28 3.40 −2.14 .03 

BFG = mean bigram frequency in German; BFE = mean bigram frequency in English; OLDG = Levenshtein orthographic neighborhood size in German; OLDE = Levenshtein orthographic neighborhood size in English.

pz denotes significance based on the normal approximation.

aEffect not significant after removal of response-based outliers.

*

p < .05.

**

p < .01.

***

p < .001.

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