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Table 1. 

Overview of the Experimental Sessions

SessionDescriptionTime
1. Prelearning fMRI—Visual anomaly task • Initial scanning session measuring prelearning responses to novel objects  
• Visual anomaly detection task used to ensure participants pay attention to the objects and their visual features  
2. Behavioral Session 1—Learning and testing • First learning session. Participants learned to associate semantic features with 12 novel objects (Figures 1 and 2A, B) One week before postlearning fMRI 
• Forced-choice recognition test (Figure 2C)  
3. Behavioral Session 2—Learning and testing • Feature-recall test to determine how much information could be recalled Approximately 2 days after Behavioral Session 1 
• Continued learning and second forced-choice recognition test  
• Visual 1-back task with additional 12 novel objects, creating an exposure condition, that were not associated with semantic features  
4. Behavioral Session 3—Testing only • Testing only (no further learning) 48–72 hr before postlearning fMRI 
• Second feature-recall test  
• Final forced-choice recognition test  
• Visual 1-back task with 12 novel objects assigned to the exposure condition  
5. Behavioral Session 4—Testing only • Final feature-recall test Immediately before postlearning fMRI 
6. Postlearning fMRI—Visual anomaly task • Final scanning session to measure the responses to novel objects after learning their meaning  
• Same visual anomaly task used for comparison with prelearning fMRI session  
SessionDescriptionTime
1. Prelearning fMRI—Visual anomaly task • Initial scanning session measuring prelearning responses to novel objects  
• Visual anomaly detection task used to ensure participants pay attention to the objects and their visual features  
2. Behavioral Session 1—Learning and testing • First learning session. Participants learned to associate semantic features with 12 novel objects (Figures 1 and 2A, B) One week before postlearning fMRI 
• Forced-choice recognition test (Figure 2C)  
3. Behavioral Session 2—Learning and testing • Feature-recall test to determine how much information could be recalled Approximately 2 days after Behavioral Session 1 
• Continued learning and second forced-choice recognition test  
• Visual 1-back task with additional 12 novel objects, creating an exposure condition, that were not associated with semantic features  
4. Behavioral Session 3—Testing only • Testing only (no further learning) 48–72 hr before postlearning fMRI 
• Second feature-recall test  
• Final forced-choice recognition test  
• Visual 1-back task with 12 novel objects assigned to the exposure condition  
5. Behavioral Session 4—Testing only • Final feature-recall test Immediately before postlearning fMRI 
6. Postlearning fMRI—Visual anomaly task • Final scanning session to measure the responses to novel objects after learning their meaning  
• Same visual anomaly task used for comparison with prelearning fMRI session  
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