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Table 1 
Summary of the Peace Scale
ValueTermIndicatorsExample
severe rivalry • many disagreements India–Pakistan (1947–2006) 
• key issues unresolved 
• frequent military encounters 
• preparation for future wars 
• diplomatic hostility 
  
0.25 lesser rivalry • several disagreements Colombia–Venezuela (1841–1982) 
• key issues unresolved 
• isolated military encounters 
• preparation for future wars 
• diplomatic hostility 
  
0.5 negative peace • some disagreements Egypt–Israel (1989–2006) 
• key issues are mitigated or resolved 
• no military encounters 
• preparation for future conflicts 
• diplomatic recognition and intergovernmental cooperation 
  
0.75 warm peace • few disagreements Argentina–Brazil (1986–2006) 
• key issues resolved 
• no military encounters 
• transnational ties 
• diplomatic relations and intergovernmental cooperation 
  
security community • few disagreements France–Germany (1992–2006) 
• key issues resolved 
• joint military planning 
• transnational ties 
• functional integration and institutionalized cooperation 
ValueTermIndicatorsExample
severe rivalry • many disagreements India–Pakistan (1947–2006) 
• key issues unresolved 
• frequent military encounters 
• preparation for future wars 
• diplomatic hostility 
  
0.25 lesser rivalry • several disagreements Colombia–Venezuela (1841–1982) 
• key issues unresolved 
• isolated military encounters 
• preparation for future wars 
• diplomatic hostility 
  
0.5 negative peace • some disagreements Egypt–Israel (1989–2006) 
• key issues are mitigated or resolved 
• no military encounters 
• preparation for future conflicts 
• diplomatic recognition and intergovernmental cooperation 
  
0.75 warm peace • few disagreements Argentina–Brazil (1986–2006) 
• key issues resolved 
• no military encounters 
• transnational ties 
• diplomatic relations and intergovernmental cooperation 
  
security community • few disagreements France–Germany (1992–2006) 
• key issues resolved 
• joint military planning 
• transnational ties 
• functional integration and institutionalized cooperation 

Adapted from Goertz et al. (2016, 25–46).

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