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Table 1 
Survey of VCO Programs and Projects in Developing Countries
NameStart DateGeographical Scale and FocusRegistered Projects in Developing Countries (data as of 2016)
Verified Carbon Standard 2007 Global 1,098 
The Gold Standard 2003 Global, focusing on sustainable development 462 
Climate, Community and Biodiversity Standard 2005 Global, focusing on biodiversity 131 
VER+ 2007 Global, certifying projects that cannot yet be implemented under the CDM 26 
Plan Vivo 2009 Global, promoting sustainable development, rural livelihoods and ecosystems 17 
Carbon Fix Standard 1999 Global, focusing on forestry, acquired by the Gold Standard in 2011 
Climate Action Reserve 2009 Only in the North American market 4 in Mexico (the rest in the US) 
Chicago Climate Change Offset Program 2003 Only in the US market 
Green-e Climate 2008 Focusing on the US, certifying retailers’ offset products 2 in Brazil (the rest in the US) 
Social Carbon 2008 Developed by a Brazilian NGO, focusing on sustainable development 20 (18 in Brazil) 
NameStart DateGeographical Scale and FocusRegistered Projects in Developing Countries (data as of 2016)
Verified Carbon Standard 2007 Global 1,098 
The Gold Standard 2003 Global, focusing on sustainable development 462 
Climate, Community and Biodiversity Standard 2005 Global, focusing on biodiversity 131 
VER+ 2007 Global, certifying projects that cannot yet be implemented under the CDM 26 
Plan Vivo 2009 Global, promoting sustainable development, rural livelihoods and ecosystems 17 
Carbon Fix Standard 1999 Global, focusing on forestry, acquired by the Gold Standard in 2011 
Climate Action Reserve 2009 Only in the North American market 4 in Mexico (the rest in the US) 
Chicago Climate Change Offset Program 2003 Only in the US market 
Green-e Climate 2008 Focusing on the US, certifying retailers’ offset products 2 in Brazil (the rest in the US) 
Social Carbon 2008 Developed by a Brazilian NGO, focusing on sustainable development 20 (18 in Brazil) 
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