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Table 2 
Explaining Environmental Legislation (Poisson, Coefficients)
 Countries
(1) All(2) Developing(3) High Income
EPs (before PTA e.i.f.) −0.000 (0.001) 0.002** (0.001) −0.003** (0.001) 
EPs (after PTA e.i.f.) −0.000 (0.001) 0.000 (0.002) −0.001 (0.001) 
IEAs (before e.i.f.) 0.008* (0.004) 0.011* (0.006) 0.002 (0.005) 
IEAs (after e.i.f.) 0.005* (0.003) 0.004 (0.006) 0.003 (0.003) 
Growth 0.011 (0.009) 0.008 (0.010) 0.018 (0.013) 
Trade openness 0.001 (0.002) 0.002 (0.002) 0.001 (0.003) 
GHG emissions −0.120*** (0.030) −0.123*** (0.036) 0.100 (0.332) 
Checks and balances −0.020 (0.014) −0.020 (0.018) −0.019 (0.024) 
Democracy 0.006 (0.017) 0.013 (0.017) −0.020 (0.029) 
Civil society participation 0.014*** (0.005) 0.017*** (0.005) 0.005 (0.017) 
Global legislative changes −0.000 (0.017) 0.012 (0.027) 0.009 (0.021) 
Neighbors’ legislative changes 0.003 (0.002) 0.003 (0.003) −0.009** (0.004) 
Year/time trend 0.075*** (0.018) 0.060** (0.027) 0.108*** (0.020) 
Country fixed effects Yes Yes Yes 
Observations 2,403 1,767 636 
Number of id 146 108 38 
 Countries
(1) All(2) Developing(3) High Income
EPs (before PTA e.i.f.) −0.000 (0.001) 0.002** (0.001) −0.003** (0.001) 
EPs (after PTA e.i.f.) −0.000 (0.001) 0.000 (0.002) −0.001 (0.001) 
IEAs (before e.i.f.) 0.008* (0.004) 0.011* (0.006) 0.002 (0.005) 
IEAs (after e.i.f.) 0.005* (0.003) 0.004 (0.006) 0.003 (0.003) 
Growth 0.011 (0.009) 0.008 (0.010) 0.018 (0.013) 
Trade openness 0.001 (0.002) 0.002 (0.002) 0.001 (0.003) 
GHG emissions −0.120*** (0.030) −0.123*** (0.036) 0.100 (0.332) 
Checks and balances −0.020 (0.014) −0.020 (0.018) −0.019 (0.024) 
Democracy 0.006 (0.017) 0.013 (0.017) −0.020 (0.029) 
Civil society participation 0.014*** (0.005) 0.017*** (0.005) 0.005 (0.017) 
Global legislative changes −0.000 (0.017) 0.012 (0.027) 0.009 (0.021) 
Neighbors’ legislative changes 0.003 (0.002) 0.003 (0.003) −0.009** (0.004) 
Year/time trend 0.075*** (0.018) 0.060** (0.027) 0.108*** (0.020) 
Country fixed effects Yes Yes Yes 
Observations 2,403 1,767 636 
Number of id 146 108 38 

Note. Robust standard errors are in parentheses.

***

p < 0.01.

**

p < 0.05.

*

p < 0.1.

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