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Table 4b 
Environmental Legislation in Developing Countries, by Issue Area (Poisson, Coefficients)
 Topics
(15) Forest(16) Natural Disaster(17) Genetic Resources(18) Waste(19) Pesticides(20) Oceans and Coasts
EPs (before PTA e.i.f.) 0.054 (0.036) 0.008 (0.063) 0.027* (0.015) 0.073*** (0.017) 0.283*** (0.066) 0.024 (0.034) 
EPs (after PTA e.i.f.) 0.017 (0.082) −0.062 (0.046) −0.059 (0.086) −0.000 (0.032) 0.090 (0.073) −0.059 (0.071) 
IEAs (before e.i.f.) 0.276 (0.727) 0.070 (0.043) 0.181*** (0.059) 0.046** (0.018) 0.111*** (0.031) 0.009 (0.040) 
IEAs (after e.i.f.) −0.017 (0.060) 0.054*** (0.019) 0.083 (0.082) 0.004 (0.019) 0.033 (0.039) −0.062** (0.030) 
Growth 0.012* (0.007) −0.006 (0.010) 0.003 (0.012) 0.006 (0.009) 0.005 (0.008) 0.008 (0.011) 
Trade openness −0.009*** (0.003) 0.001 (0.003) −0.008 (0.008) −0.001 (0.003) −0.000 (0.004) 0.001 (0.003) 
GHG emissions −0.197* (0.108) −0.058 (0.076) 0.040 (0.267) −0.045 (0.070) −0.093** (0.042) 0.014 (0.083) 
Checks and balances −0.030 (0.030) −0.018 (0.029) −0.062** (0.028) −0.018 (0.015) −0.026 (0.018) 0.000 (0.023) 
Democracy −0.082 (0.064) 0.017 (0.024) −0.019 (0.051) 0.003 (0.024) 0.015 (0.027) 0.029 (0.021) 
Civil society participation 0.033** (0.016) −0.009 (0.008) 0.016 (0.014) −0.011* (0.006) 0.021** (0.010) −0.008 (0.008) 
Global legislative changes −0.006 (0.037) −0.932*** (0.339) −1.553 (1.339) −0.045 (0.165) 0.361 (0.245) −0.005 (0.494) 
Neighbors’ legislative changes 0.100** (0.049) 0.064 (0.090) −0.219 (0.346) 0.016 (0.026) −0.022 (0.049) 0.033 (0.066) 
Year/time trend 0.040 (0.033) 0.120*** (0.023) 0.089*** (0.025) 0.056** (0.022) 0.015 (0.024) 0.043 (0.031) 
Country fixed effects Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes 
Observations 1,646 1,621 1,490 1,713 1,704 1,690 
Number of id 99 98 88 104 103 103 
 Topics
(15) Forest(16) Natural Disaster(17) Genetic Resources(18) Waste(19) Pesticides(20) Oceans and Coasts
EPs (before PTA e.i.f.) 0.054 (0.036) 0.008 (0.063) 0.027* (0.015) 0.073*** (0.017) 0.283*** (0.066) 0.024 (0.034) 
EPs (after PTA e.i.f.) 0.017 (0.082) −0.062 (0.046) −0.059 (0.086) −0.000 (0.032) 0.090 (0.073) −0.059 (0.071) 
IEAs (before e.i.f.) 0.276 (0.727) 0.070 (0.043) 0.181*** (0.059) 0.046** (0.018) 0.111*** (0.031) 0.009 (0.040) 
IEAs (after e.i.f.) −0.017 (0.060) 0.054*** (0.019) 0.083 (0.082) 0.004 (0.019) 0.033 (0.039) −0.062** (0.030) 
Growth 0.012* (0.007) −0.006 (0.010) 0.003 (0.012) 0.006 (0.009) 0.005 (0.008) 0.008 (0.011) 
Trade openness −0.009*** (0.003) 0.001 (0.003) −0.008 (0.008) −0.001 (0.003) −0.000 (0.004) 0.001 (0.003) 
GHG emissions −0.197* (0.108) −0.058 (0.076) 0.040 (0.267) −0.045 (0.070) −0.093** (0.042) 0.014 (0.083) 
Checks and balances −0.030 (0.030) −0.018 (0.029) −0.062** (0.028) −0.018 (0.015) −0.026 (0.018) 0.000 (0.023) 
Democracy −0.082 (0.064) 0.017 (0.024) −0.019 (0.051) 0.003 (0.024) 0.015 (0.027) 0.029 (0.021) 
Civil society participation 0.033** (0.016) −0.009 (0.008) 0.016 (0.014) −0.011* (0.006) 0.021** (0.010) −0.008 (0.008) 
Global legislative changes −0.006 (0.037) −0.932*** (0.339) −1.553 (1.339) −0.045 (0.165) 0.361 (0.245) −0.005 (0.494) 
Neighbors’ legislative changes 0.100** (0.049) 0.064 (0.090) −0.219 (0.346) 0.016 (0.026) −0.022 (0.049) 0.033 (0.066) 
Year/time trend 0.040 (0.033) 0.120*** (0.023) 0.089*** (0.025) 0.056** (0.022) 0.015 (0.024) 0.043 (0.031) 
Country fixed effects Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes 
Observations 1,646 1,621 1,490 1,713 1,704 1,690 
Number of id 99 98 88 104 103 103 

Note. Robust standard errors are in parentheses.

***

p < 0.01.

**

p < 0.05.

*

p < 0.1.

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