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Table 1. 

Demographic Characteristics, PD Status, and Cognitive and Executive Function

Patients with PDControl Participantstp
Demographic characteristics 
Sex 7F, 3M 8F, 4M  .62 
Handedness 9R, 1B 11R, 1L  .71 
Age (years) 63.69 (4.40) 62.55 (3.03) 0.22 .83 
Education (years) 16.40 (0.52) 15.58 (0.60) 0.45 .35 
PD status 
UPDRS IIIa 9.22 (2.37) –   
Hoehn-Yahr 1.6 (1.1)    
Levodopa equivalent dose (mg) 630.80 (99.76)    
Cognitive function: general 
MOCAb 27.60 (0.50) 28.83 (0.42) 1.90 .07 
Executive function 
Trail Making (Parts B-A)a 50.09 (12.31) 28.35 (4.67) −1.77 .09 
Stroopb 2.30 (1.50) 0.77 (3.41) −0.39 .70 
Verbal Fluencyb 38.50 (3.18) 48.50 (4.13) 1.86 .08 
Digit Spanb 16.90 (0.96) 19.50 (1.08) 1.76 .09 
Wisconsin Card Sort Testb 5.00 (0.67) 5.75 (0.25) 1.05 .31 
Executive Function Compositeb −0.24 (0.14) 0.27 (0.15) 2.26 .03 
Patients with PDControl Participantstp
Demographic characteristics 
Sex 7F, 3M 8F, 4M  .62 
Handedness 9R, 1B 11R, 1L  .71 
Age (years) 63.69 (4.40) 62.55 (3.03) 0.22 .83 
Education (years) 16.40 (0.52) 15.58 (0.60) 0.45 .35 
PD status 
UPDRS IIIa 9.22 (2.37) –   
Hoehn-Yahr 1.6 (1.1)    
Levodopa equivalent dose (mg) 630.80 (99.76)    
Cognitive function: general 
MOCAb 27.60 (0.50) 28.83 (0.42) 1.90 .07 
Executive function 
Trail Making (Parts B-A)a 50.09 (12.31) 28.35 (4.67) −1.77 .09 
Stroopb 2.30 (1.50) 0.77 (3.41) −0.39 .70 
Verbal Fluencyb 38.50 (3.18) 48.50 (4.13) 1.86 .08 
Digit Spanb 16.90 (0.96) 19.50 (1.08) 1.76 .09 
Wisconsin Card Sort Testb 5.00 (0.67) 5.75 (0.25) 1.05 .31 
Executive Function Compositeb −0.24 (0.14) 0.27 (0.15) 2.26 .03 

Values are mean (SEM).

B = bilateral; F = female; L = left; M = male; R = right.

a

Lower score = better performance.

b

Higher score = better performance.

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