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Table 1.

Costs and Benefits of Stuxnet to the Offense and Defense

United States and Israel (offense)Iran (defense)
Value of Offense and Defense 
Value of undermining the program, as measured by sanctions: on the order of $10 billion per year, or $30 billion from 2007 to 2010 Not considered by Malone Value of protecting the program, as measured by losses resulting from sanctions: on the order of $10 billion per year, or $30 billion from 2007 to 2010 Not considered by Malone 
Costs of Offense and Defense 
Intelligence $260 million from 2007 to 2010 Not included in Malone's estimate Ongoing security expenditures $7 million from 2007 to 2010 Malone's estimate: $34 million 
Labor required to develop the Stuxnet worm $7 million from 2007 to 2010 Malone's estimate: $3.5 million Manufacturing new centrifuges $1.8 million from 2007 to 2010 Not included in Malone's estimate 
Cost of zero-day exploits $2 million Not included in Malone's estimate   
Cost of stolen certificates $1 million Not included in Malone's estimate   
Infrastructure costs from 2007 to 2010 $40 million Malone's estimate: $327,000 Lost productivity at Natanz resulting from attacks $5 million Not included in Malone's estimate 
Total costs (United States/Israel): $300 million Malone's estimate: $4.7 million Total costs: $14 million Malone's estimate: $34 million 
United States and Israel (offense)Iran (defense)
Value of Offense and Defense 
Value of undermining the program, as measured by sanctions: on the order of $10 billion per year, or $30 billion from 2007 to 2010 Not considered by Malone Value of protecting the program, as measured by losses resulting from sanctions: on the order of $10 billion per year, or $30 billion from 2007 to 2010 Not considered by Malone 
Costs of Offense and Defense 
Intelligence $260 million from 2007 to 2010 Not included in Malone's estimate Ongoing security expenditures $7 million from 2007 to 2010 Malone's estimate: $34 million 
Labor required to develop the Stuxnet worm $7 million from 2007 to 2010 Malone's estimate: $3.5 million Manufacturing new centrifuges $1.8 million from 2007 to 2010 Not included in Malone's estimate 
Cost of zero-day exploits $2 million Not included in Malone's estimate   
Cost of stolen certificates $1 million Not included in Malone's estimate   
Infrastructure costs from 2007 to 2010 $40 million Malone's estimate: $327,000 Lost productivity at Natanz resulting from attacks $5 million Not included in Malone's estimate 
Total costs (United States/Israel): $300 million Malone's estimate: $4.7 million Total costs: $14 million Malone's estimate: $34 million 
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