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Table 1.

Technological and Doctrinal Conditions for Escalation to Occur as a Result of Entanglement

Misinterpreted WarningDamage-Limitation WindowCrisis Instability
Target's nuclear forces have been attacked by—or are perceived to be threatened by—attacker's nonnuclear weapons   XXa 
Target's nuclear C3I (command, control, communication, and intelligence) capabilities have been attacked by—or are perceived to be threatened by—attacker's nonnuclear weapons XX XX XXa 
Target's nuclear delivery systems are dual use or superficially similar to nonnuclear delivery systems   
Target's nuclear C3I capabilities are dual use XX XX 
Attacker's nuclear doctrine calls for damage limitation  
Target's nuclear doctrine calls for damage limitation XX  
Attacker's conventional warfighting doctrine calls for attacks against C3I capabilities 
Misinterpreted WarningDamage-Limitation WindowCrisis Instability
Target's nuclear forces have been attacked by—or are perceived to be threatened by—attacker's nonnuclear weapons   XXa 
Target's nuclear C3I (command, control, communication, and intelligence) capabilities have been attacked by—or are perceived to be threatened by—attacker's nonnuclear weapons XX XX XXa 
Target's nuclear delivery systems are dual use or superficially similar to nonnuclear delivery systems   
Target's nuclear C3I capabilities are dual use XX XX 
Attacker's nuclear doctrine calls for damage limitation  
Target's nuclear doctrine calls for damage limitation XX  
Attacker's conventional warfighting doctrine calls for attacks against C3I capabilities 

XX = necessary condition

X = exacerbating condition

a

At least one of these conditions is necessary for crisis instability.

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