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Table 1.

Extended Great Power Rivalries, 1816–1991

RivalryYearsPercentage Point Gap between Balance of Gross Resources and Balance of Net Resources
Britain vs. China 1839–1911 33 
France vs. China 1860–1929 32 
Britain vs. Soviet Union 1946–1991 29 
United States vs. Soviet Union 1946–1991 26 
Germany vs. Russia 1891–1917 22 
Japan vs. China 1874–1945 21 
Russia/Soviet Union vs. China 1857–1991 19 
Britain vs. Russia 1833–1907 18 
Japan vs. Russia 1853–1991 13 
Britain vs. Germany 1853–1991 10 
Britain vs. Italy 1911–1947 10 
France vs. Germany 1830–1945 
United States vs. Britain 1816–1903 
Germany vs. Italy 1914–1945 
Austria-Hungary vs. Italy 1843–1930 insufficient data 
RivalryYearsPercentage Point Gap between Balance of Gross Resources and Balance of Net Resources
Britain vs. China 1839–1911 33 
France vs. China 1860–1929 32 
Britain vs. Soviet Union 1946–1991 29 
United States vs. Soviet Union 1946–1991 26 
Germany vs. Russia 1891–1917 22 
Japan vs. China 1874–1945 21 
Russia/Soviet Union vs. China 1857–1991 19 
Britain vs. Russia 1833–1907 18 
Japan vs. Russia 1853–1991 13 
Britain vs. Germany 1853–1991 10 
Britain vs. Italy 1911–1947 10 
France vs. Germany 1830–1945 
United States vs. Britain 1816–1903 
Germany vs. Italy 1914–1945 
Austria-Hungary vs. Italy 1843–1930 insufficient data 
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