Skip to Main Content
Table 1.

States with Status and Contractualist Economies, 1776–2010

StateAxial Years*StateAxial YearsStateAxial Years
United States –1776 Italy <1960–1989 Trinidad 1993–2007> 
Australia –1920 Portugal 1981–1990 Bahrain 1994– 
Canada –1920 Singapore 1979–1994 Oman 1994–2003> 
New Zealand –1920 Chile 1981–1996 Brazil 1995– 
Netherlands <1922–1922 Malaysia 1979–1996 Croatia 1995– 
Switzerland <1926–1926 Greece 1980–1997††† Colombia 1996– 
Norway <1930–1930 Slovenia 1992–1997 India 1996– 
Sweden <1930–1930 Czech Rep. 1993–1998 China 1997– 
Great Britain <1931–1931 Mauritius 1997–1999 El Salvador 1999–2006> 
Luxembourg <1960–1960 Botswana <2000–2000 Qatar 1999– 
Denmark <1960–1962 Hungary 1986–2001 Estonia 2003–2008> 
Germany <1960–1963 Slovakia 1993–2002 Lebanon 2003– 
Japan <1960–1963 Poland 1991–2003 Lithuania 2003–2008> 
Finland <1960–1967 South Africa 1979– Namibia 2003– 
Belgium <1960–1972 Venezuela 1979–1983±# Russia 2003–2009±# 
France <1960–1975 Panama 1981– Peru 2004– 
Austria <1960–1977 Mexico 1982– Jamaica <2005– 
Ireland ††–1979 Thailand 1985– Morocco 2006–2009> 
Israel 1961–1981 Kuwait 1986–2009> Indonesia 2007–2009> 
Taiwan 1979–1983 Uruguay 1989– Latvia 2008–2008> 
Korea, Rep. 1979–1984 Argentina 1991– Romania 2009– 
Spain 1974–1987 Bulgaria 1991–2009>#   
Cyprus 1988–1989 UAE 1992–1997>   
StateAxial Years*StateAxial YearsStateAxial Years
United States –1776 Italy <1960–1989 Trinidad 1993–2007> 
Australia –1920 Portugal 1981–1990 Bahrain 1994– 
Canada –1920 Singapore 1979–1994 Oman 1994–2003> 
New Zealand –1920 Chile 1981–1996 Brazil 1995– 
Netherlands <1922–1922 Malaysia 1979–1996 Croatia 1995– 
Switzerland <1926–1926 Greece 1980–1997††† Colombia 1996– 
Norway <1930–1930 Slovenia 1992–1997 India 1996– 
Sweden <1930–1930 Czech Rep. 1993–1998 China 1997– 
Great Britain <1931–1931 Mauritius 1997–1999 El Salvador 1999–2006> 
Luxembourg <1960–1960 Botswana <2000–2000 Qatar 1999– 
Denmark <1960–1962 Hungary 1986–2001 Estonia 2003–2008> 
Germany <1960–1963 Slovakia 1993–2002 Lebanon 2003– 
Japan <1960–1963 Poland 1991–2003 Lithuania 2003–2008> 
Finland <1960–1967 South Africa 1979– Namibia 2003– 
Belgium <1960–1972 Venezuela 1979–1983±# Russia 2003–2009±# 
France <1960–1975 Panama 1981– Peru 2004– 
Austria <1960–1977 Mexico 1982– Jamaica <2005– 
Ireland ††–1979 Thailand 1985– Morocco 2006–2009> 
Israel 1961–1981 Kuwait 1986–2009> Indonesia 2007–2009> 
Taiwan 1979–1983 Uruguay 1989– Latvia 2008–2008> 
Korea, Rep. 1979–1984 Argentina 1991– Romania 2009– 
Spain 1974–1987 Bulgaria 1991–2009>#   
Cyprus 1988–1989 UAE 1992–1997>   
*

Axial is the intermediate category. Unless otherwise indicated, the last year of the axial period is the first year of the contractualist economy, and states that became contractualist remained so until the end of the observation period. Nation-years unlisted have status economies, unless they have populations with fewer than 500,000 people, in which case they should be treated as missing not-at-random. Axial periods are those between $25 and $165 in life insurance consumption per capita, a range in the data where growth rates in life insurance contracting are, on average, higher than growth rates in the overall economy, indicating ongoing change toward a contractualist economy (during the period of data availability, no state shifted from a contractualist to a status economy). Few states are in the range from $20 to $200, so the exact cut-points make little difference in test results. Status economy is also indicated with missing data, as status states tend to refrain from reporting economic data to conceal rent-seeking. States with more than $165 per capita are considered axial rather than contractualist if they have informal economic flows, which indicate status flows. Life insurance data, which span from 1960 to 2010, is gauged in constant (2005) international dollars using purchasing power parity rates to account for the fact that the needed death benefit to cover the typical household increases with the income level of an economy, eight-year moving average. Data from Thorsten Beck, Asli Demirguç-Kunt, and Ross Levine, “Financial Institutions and Markets across Countries and over Time: The Updated Financial Development and Structure Database,” World Bank Economic Review, Vol. 24, No. 1 (2010), pp. 77–92, doi.org/10.1093/wber/lhp016. Migration data used to extrapolate prior years of missing data by country. For details, see Michael Mousseau, “Contract Intensity of National Economies (CINE), Version Mar-2019,” Harvard Dataverse, V1, doi.org/10.7910/DVN/8RPC9E.

“<” / “>” = start year/end year of axial period unknown, treated as missing-at-random.

State had a contractualist economy from year of sovereignty.

††

Start years of contractualist and axial economy unknown.

†††

State may no longer have a contractualist economy after 2008. Years 2009–10 are unknown.

±

Axial period ended with resumption of a status economy.

#

Axial period contains some years of a status economy.

Close Modal

or Create an Account

Close Modal
Close Modal