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Secondary data in Table 3 show that the price of fuelwood was around 37 Pakistan rupees (PRs) per kilogram (kg) in 2018, and during the last 5 years (between 2014 and 2018), it ranged from PRs32 to PRs38 with a steady increasing trend. The price of kerosene has increased sharply over the years to PRs85 in 2018. Kerosene use declines with increases in income and education of households and household heads (Rahut, Behera, and Ali 2016a; Rahut et al. 2014). The use of kerosene in Pakistan has been declining over the years. For example, in 1986, daily use of kerosene was 19 thousand barrels but has declined to 13 thousand barrels in 1996 and 3.5 thousand barrels in 2012 (IndexMundi 2018). This is mainly due to the availability of LPG and an increase in the price of kerosene. In the past, most urban households did not have access to gas. But over the years, access to gas has been increasing, hence replacing the use of kerosene oil in cities. The unit price of electricity was PRs18 in 2018 and has remained relatively constant during the last 5 years. The price of LPG has marginally declined over the years. A kilogram of LPG was about PRs112 in 2018.

Table 3. 
Fuel Prices
20142015201620172018Source
Fuelwood (PRs/kg) 32 35 34 38 37 Different sources 
Kerosene (PRs/liter) 57 56 48 66 85.3 OGRA 
Electricity (PRs/unit) 15 16 16 17 18 NEPRA and other sources 
LPG (PRs/kg) 130 133 125 118 112 OGRA 
20142015201620172018Source
Fuelwood (PRs/kg) 32 35 34 38 37 Different sources 
Kerosene (PRs/liter) 57 56 48 66 85.3 OGRA 
Electricity (PRs/unit) 15 16 16 17 18 NEPRA and other sources 
LPG (PRs/kg) 130 133 125 118 112 OGRA 

kg = kilogram, LPG = liquid petroleum gas, NEPRA = National Electric Power Regulatory Authority, OGRA = Oil and Gas Regulatory Authority, PRs = Pakistan rupees.

Sources: National Electric Power Regulatory Authority; Oil and Gas Regulatory Authority.

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