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We estimated the ordered probit econometric model to study the factors that determine a household's choice of cooking fuel. We organized and ordered the households into different categories based on the fuel used for cooking, with dung and crop residue at the base of the energy ladder followed by fuelwood and then gas at the top. Table 6 summarizes the marginal effects of the results obtained from the ordered probit model.

Table 6. 
Determinants of Choice of Energy Sources for Cooking: Ordered Probit Model (marginal effects)
Dung and Crop ResidueFuelwoodGas
Demographic    
Age of household head −0.0006** −0.0043*** 0.0049*** 
 (0.0003) (0.0016) (0.0018) 
Age squared (multiplied by 1,000)a 0.0043 0.0299* −0.0342* 
 (0.0026) (0.0163) (0.0188) 
Gender of the head (female)b,c −0.0020 −0.0146 0.0166 
 (0.0022) (0.0157) (0.0178) 
Household size 0.0010*** 0.0068*** −0.0078*** 
 (0.0003) (0.0019) (0.0022) 
Human capital and education    
Below primaryb,d −0.0023 −0.0170 0.0193 
 (0.0024) (0.0181) (0.0204) 
Primary completedb,d −0.0070*** −0.0541*** 0.0611*** 
 (0.0019) (0.0104) (0.0115) 
Middle school completedb,d −0.0097*** −0.0813*** 0.0910*** 
 (0.0025) (0.0119) (0.0132) 
Secondary school completed b,d −0.0109*** −0.0891*** 0.1000*** 
 (0.0026) (0.0127) (0.0138) 
Senior secondary school completedb,d −0.0089*** −0.0745*** 0.0834*** 
 (0.0027) (0.0166) (0.0184) 
University completedb,d −0.0139*** −0.1240*** 0.1380*** 
 (0.0035) (0.0168) (0.0183) 
Wealth and assets    
Assets index −0.0052*** −0.0363*** 0.0416*** 
 (0.0010) (0.0029) (0.0027) 
Agricultural land owned (hectares) 0.0001 0.0006 −0.0006 
 (0.0001) (0.0004) (0.0005) 
Value of nonagricultural land owned    
(million Pakistan rupees) −0.0020*** −0.0136*** 0.0156*** 
 (0.0007) (0.0040) (0.0045) 
Livestock assets 0.0015*** 0.0107*** −0.0123*** 
 (0.0005) (0.0023) (0.0026) 
Access to facilities    
Distance to high school (within 30 minutes)b,e −0.0174* −0.0914** 0.1090** 
 (0.0092) (0.0393) (0.0479) 
Location: province    
Khyber Pakhtunkhwab,f −0.0129*** −0.1190** 0.1320*** 
 (0.0044) (0.0469) (0.0501) 
Punjabb,f −0.0219** −0.1430*** 0.1650*** 
 (0.0095) (0.0547) (0.0631) 
Sindhb,f    
 −0.0236*** −0.1840*** 0.2070*** 
 (0.0066) (0.0492) (0.0537) 
Number of observations 13,947   
Wald chi-squared test (18) 825   
Prob > chi-squared 0.000   
Pseudo R-squared 0.149   
Log pseudolikelihood −8,263   
Dung and Crop ResidueFuelwoodGas
Demographic    
Age of household head −0.0006** −0.0043*** 0.0049*** 
 (0.0003) (0.0016) (0.0018) 
Age squared (multiplied by 1,000)a 0.0043 0.0299* −0.0342* 
 (0.0026) (0.0163) (0.0188) 
Gender of the head (female)b,c −0.0020 −0.0146 0.0166 
 (0.0022) (0.0157) (0.0178) 
Household size 0.0010*** 0.0068*** −0.0078*** 
 (0.0003) (0.0019) (0.0022) 
Human capital and education    
Below primaryb,d −0.0023 −0.0170 0.0193 
 (0.0024) (0.0181) (0.0204) 
Primary completedb,d −0.0070*** −0.0541*** 0.0611*** 
 (0.0019) (0.0104) (0.0115) 
Middle school completedb,d −0.0097*** −0.0813*** 0.0910*** 
 (0.0025) (0.0119) (0.0132) 
Secondary school completed b,d −0.0109*** −0.0891*** 0.1000*** 
 (0.0026) (0.0127) (0.0138) 
Senior secondary school completedb,d −0.0089*** −0.0745*** 0.0834*** 
 (0.0027) (0.0166) (0.0184) 
University completedb,d −0.0139*** −0.1240*** 0.1380*** 
 (0.0035) (0.0168) (0.0183) 
Wealth and assets    
Assets index −0.0052*** −0.0363*** 0.0416*** 
 (0.0010) (0.0029) (0.0027) 
Agricultural land owned (hectares) 0.0001 0.0006 −0.0006 
 (0.0001) (0.0004) (0.0005) 
Value of nonagricultural land owned    
(million Pakistan rupees) −0.0020*** −0.0136*** 0.0156*** 
 (0.0007) (0.0040) (0.0045) 
Livestock assets 0.0015*** 0.0107*** −0.0123*** 
 (0.0005) (0.0023) (0.0026) 
Access to facilities    
Distance to high school (within 30 minutes)b,e −0.0174* −0.0914** 0.1090** 
 (0.0092) (0.0393) (0.0479) 
Location: province    
Khyber Pakhtunkhwab,f −0.0129*** −0.1190** 0.1320*** 
 (0.0044) (0.0469) (0.0501) 
Punjabb,f −0.0219** −0.1430*** 0.1650*** 
 (0.0095) (0.0547) (0.0631) 
Sindhb,f    
 −0.0236*** −0.1840*** 0.2070*** 
 (0.0066) (0.0492) (0.0537) 
Number of observations 13,947   
Wald chi-squared test (18) 825   
Prob > chi-squared 0.000   
Pseudo R-squared 0.149   
Log pseudolikelihood −8,263   

Notes: *** = 1% level of significance, ** = 5% level of significance, and * = 10% level of significance. Robust standard errors in parentheses.

aCoefficient multiplied by 1,000 to represent results within four digits after the decimal.

bDummy variables

cExcluded category: male household head

dExcluded category: household head without any formal education

eExcluded category: households more than 30 minutes away from high schools

fExcluded category: Balochistan

Source: Authors’ calculations.

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