Skip to Main Content

Table 7 shows the results of the ordered probit model, which was reestimated by keeping other independent and dependent items the same and replacing a few key variables such as education and wealth.1 Following recent literature which suggests that research on energy switching behaviors should go beyond income (van der Kroon, Brouwer, and van Beukering 2013), we have used different specifications of education in this section to explain the relationship between education and household energy choice.

Table 7. 
Factors Influencing Choice of Energy Sources for Cooking: Ordered Probit Model for Robustness Checks (marginal effects)
Dung and Crop ResidueFuelwoodGas
Specification 1 
Maximum education of adults −0.0015*** −0.0106*** 0.0121*** 
 (0.0004) (0.0013) (0.0015) 
Specification 2 
Maximum education of adult males −0.0005** −0.0038*** 0.0043*** 
 (0.0002) (0.0012) (0.0014) 
Maximum education of adult females −0.0015*** −0.0111*** 0.0126*** 
 (0.0004) (0.0010) (0.0011) 
Specification 3 
Mean education of adults −0.0024*** −0.0181*** 0.0206*** 
 (0.0006) (0.0018) (0.0021) 
Specification 4 
Mean education of adult males −0.0005** −0.0040*** 0.0045*** 
 (0.0002) (0.0013) (0.0015) 
Mean education of adult females −0.0019*** −0.0146*** 0.0164*** 
 (0.0004) (0.0012) (0.0014) 
Specification 5 
Years of schooling of household head −0.0012*** −0.0085*** 0.0098*** 
 (0.0003) (0.0012) (0.0014) 
Specification 6 
Mean education of spouse −0.0018*** −0.0140*** 0.0158*** 
 (0.0004) (0.0013) (0.0015) 
Specification 7 
Maximum education of elderly −0.0007** −0.0058*** 0.0065*** 
 (0.0003) (0.0022) (0.0024) 
Specification 8 
Mean education of elderly −0.0007** −0.0060*** 0.0067*** 
 (0.0003) (0.0023) (0.0025) 
Specification 9 
Education of oldest family member −0.0012*** −0.0081*** 0.0092*** 
 (0.0003) (0.0010) (0.0012) 
Specification 10 
Years of schooling = 1a,b 0.0199 0.1020 −0.1220 
 (0.0233) (0.0875) (0.1100) 
Years of schooling = 2a,b −0.0052 −0.0415 0.0467 
 (0.0037) (0.0324) (0.0359) 
Years of schooling = 3a,b −0.0006 −0.0044 0.0050 
 (0.0039) (0.0278) (0.0317) 
Years of schooling = 4a,b −0.0031 −0.0234 0.0265 
 (0.0032) (0.0252) (0.0283) 
Years of schooling = 5a,b −0.0065*** −0.0516*** 0.0581*** 
 (0.0018) (0.0106) (0.0117) 
Years of schooling = 6a,b −0.0088*** −0.0778*** 0.0866*** 
 (0.0027) (0.0227) (0.0246) 
Years of schooling = 7a,b −0.0054* −0.0428* 0.0481* 
 (0.0029) (0.0244) (0.0270) 
Years of schooling = 8a,b −0.0097*** −0.0831*** 0.0928*** 
 (0.0025) (0.0115) (0.0127) 
Years of schooling = 9a,b −0.0076*** −0.0646*** 0.0721*** 
 (0.0029) (0.0241) (0.0265) 
Years of schooling = 10a,b −0.0107*** −0.0887*** 0.0994*** 
 (0.0026) (0.0127) (0.0138) 
Years of schooling = 11a,b −0.0093*** −0.0791*** 0.0884*** 
 (0.0028) (0.0173) (0.0191) 
Years of schooling = 12a,b −0.0002 −0.0011 0.0012 
 (0.0058) (0.0408) (0.0465) 
Years of schooling = 13a,b −0.0137*** −0.1360*** 0.1500*** 
 (0.0032) (0.0171) (0.0178) 
Years of schooling = 14a,b −0.0114*** −0.1130** 0.1240*** 
 (0.0035) (0.0448) (0.0472) 
Years of schooling = 15a,b −0.0110*** −0.0999*** 0.111*** 
 (0.0033) (0.0208) (0.0231) 
Years of schooling = 16a,b −0.0156*** −0.2260*** 0.2420*** 
 (0.0037) (0.0223) (0.0227) 
Specification 11 
Cement and metal roofa,c −0.0283*** −0.1890*** 0.2170*** 
 (0.0052) (0.0228) (0.0237) 
Specification 12 
No toileta,d 0.0814*** 0.2200*** −0.3020*** 
 (0.0142) (0.0241) (0.0310) 
Pit toilet a,d 0.0667*** 0.2050*** −0.2720*** 
 (0.0157) (0.0211) (0.0310) 
Specification 13 
Brick-walled housea,e −0.0666*** −0.2140*** 0.2810*** 
 (0.0122) (0.0224) (0.0274) 
Specification 14 
Number of elderly (>65 years) 0.0022* 0.0153* −0.0175* 
 (0.0011) (0.0086) (0.0097) 
Number of children (<15 years) 0.0016*** 0.0109*** −0.0125*** 
 (0.0004) (0.0024) (0.0027) 
Adult members (15–65 years) 0.0001 0.0005 −0.0006 
 (0.0004) (0.0027) (0.0030) 
Specification 15 
Number of children (<15 years) 0.0016*** 0.0109*** −0.0125*** 
 (0.0004) (0.0024) (0.0027) 
Number of adult males (15–65 years) 0.00004 0.0003 −0.0003 
 (0.0005) (0.0033) (0.0038) 
Number of adult females (15–65 years) 0.0001 0.0009 −0.0010 
 (0.0006) (0.0043) (0.0050) 
Number of elderly (>65 years) 0.0022* 0.0153* −0.0175* 
 (0.0012) (0.0087) (0.0098) 
Dung and Crop ResidueFuelwoodGas
Specification 1 
Maximum education of adults −0.0015*** −0.0106*** 0.0121*** 
 (0.0004) (0.0013) (0.0015) 
Specification 2 
Maximum education of adult males −0.0005** −0.0038*** 0.0043*** 
 (0.0002) (0.0012) (0.0014) 
Maximum education of adult females −0.0015*** −0.0111*** 0.0126*** 
 (0.0004) (0.0010) (0.0011) 
Specification 3 
Mean education of adults −0.0024*** −0.0181*** 0.0206*** 
 (0.0006) (0.0018) (0.0021) 
Specification 4 
Mean education of adult males −0.0005** −0.0040*** 0.0045*** 
 (0.0002) (0.0013) (0.0015) 
Mean education of adult females −0.0019*** −0.0146*** 0.0164*** 
 (0.0004) (0.0012) (0.0014) 
Specification 5 
Years of schooling of household head −0.0012*** −0.0085*** 0.0098*** 
 (0.0003) (0.0012) (0.0014) 
Specification 6 
Mean education of spouse −0.0018*** −0.0140*** 0.0158*** 
 (0.0004) (0.0013) (0.0015) 
Specification 7 
Maximum education of elderly −0.0007** −0.0058*** 0.0065*** 
 (0.0003) (0.0022) (0.0024) 
Specification 8 
Mean education of elderly −0.0007** −0.0060*** 0.0067*** 
 (0.0003) (0.0023) (0.0025) 
Specification 9 
Education of oldest family member −0.0012*** −0.0081*** 0.0092*** 
 (0.0003) (0.0010) (0.0012) 
Specification 10 
Years of schooling = 1a,b 0.0199 0.1020 −0.1220 
 (0.0233) (0.0875) (0.1100) 
Years of schooling = 2a,b −0.0052 −0.0415 0.0467 
 (0.0037) (0.0324) (0.0359) 
Years of schooling = 3a,b −0.0006 −0.0044 0.0050 
 (0.0039) (0.0278) (0.0317) 
Years of schooling = 4a,b −0.0031 −0.0234 0.0265 
 (0.0032) (0.0252) (0.0283) 
Years of schooling = 5a,b −0.0065*** −0.0516*** 0.0581*** 
 (0.0018) (0.0106) (0.0117) 
Years of schooling = 6a,b −0.0088*** −0.0778*** 0.0866*** 
 (0.0027) (0.0227) (0.0246) 
Years of schooling = 7a,b −0.0054* −0.0428* 0.0481* 
 (0.0029) (0.0244) (0.0270) 
Years of schooling = 8a,b −0.0097*** −0.0831*** 0.0928*** 
 (0.0025) (0.0115) (0.0127) 
Years of schooling = 9a,b −0.0076*** −0.0646*** 0.0721*** 
 (0.0029) (0.0241) (0.0265) 
Years of schooling = 10a,b −0.0107*** −0.0887*** 0.0994*** 
 (0.0026) (0.0127) (0.0138) 
Years of schooling = 11a,b −0.0093*** −0.0791*** 0.0884*** 
 (0.0028) (0.0173) (0.0191) 
Years of schooling = 12a,b −0.0002 −0.0011 0.0012 
 (0.0058) (0.0408) (0.0465) 
Years of schooling = 13a,b −0.0137*** −0.1360*** 0.1500*** 
 (0.0032) (0.0171) (0.0178) 
Years of schooling = 14a,b −0.0114*** −0.1130** 0.1240*** 
 (0.0035) (0.0448) (0.0472) 
Years of schooling = 15a,b −0.0110*** −0.0999*** 0.111*** 
 (0.0033) (0.0208) (0.0231) 
Years of schooling = 16a,b −0.0156*** −0.2260*** 0.2420*** 
 (0.0037) (0.0223) (0.0227) 
Specification 11 
Cement and metal roofa,c −0.0283*** −0.1890*** 0.2170*** 
 (0.0052) (0.0228) (0.0237) 
Specification 12 
No toileta,d 0.0814*** 0.2200*** −0.3020*** 
 (0.0142) (0.0241) (0.0310) 
Pit toilet a,d 0.0667*** 0.2050*** −0.2720*** 
 (0.0157) (0.0211) (0.0310) 
Specification 13 
Brick-walled housea,e −0.0666*** −0.2140*** 0.2810*** 
 (0.0122) (0.0224) (0.0274) 
Specification 14 
Number of elderly (>65 years) 0.0022* 0.0153* −0.0175* 
 (0.0011) (0.0086) (0.0097) 
Number of children (<15 years) 0.0016*** 0.0109*** −0.0125*** 
 (0.0004) (0.0024) (0.0027) 
Adult members (15–65 years) 0.0001 0.0005 −0.0006 
 (0.0004) (0.0027) (0.0030) 
Specification 15 
Number of children (<15 years) 0.0016*** 0.0109*** −0.0125*** 
 (0.0004) (0.0024) (0.0027) 
Number of adult males (15–65 years) 0.00004 0.0003 −0.0003 
 (0.0005) (0.0033) (0.0038) 
Number of adult females (15–65 years) 0.0001 0.0009 −0.0010 
 (0.0006) (0.0043) (0.0050) 
Number of elderly (>65 years) 0.0022* 0.0153* −0.0175* 
 (0.0012) (0.0087) (0.0098) 

Notes: ***1% level of significance, **5% level of significance, and *10% level of significance. Robust standard errors in parentheses. In Table 7, we reported only those variables that were replaced; the rest of the variables can be provided upon request.

aDummy variables

bExcluded category: household head without any formal education

cExcluded category: households with nonmetal and cement roofs

dExcluded category: households with flush toilets

eExcluded category: households with mud, wood, and bamboo walls

Source: Authors’ calculations.

Close Modal

or Create an Account

Close Modal
Close Modal