Skip to Main Content
Table 1. 
Descriptive Statistics
Dependent VariablesNo. of ObservationsMeanStandard DeviationMinMaxSource
Log of exports 13,605 10.317 3.061 0.000 19.385 Provincial-level yearbooks 
Log of imports 9,065 10.181 3.504 0.000 17.695 Provincial-level yearbooks 
Independent Variables No. of Observations Mean Standard Deviation Min Max Source 
ln(ACFICit) 203 11.328 0.961 7.688 12.682 ACFIC yearbooks 
ln(CBTjt) 1,229 2.558 1.800 0.000 7.974 China Business Times website 
ln(GDPit) 248 19.121 1.013 15.681 20.920 National Bureau of Statistics of China 
ln(GDPjt) 1,438 17.320 2.315 10.368 23.552 World Bank World Development Indicators 
ln(Distanceij) 1,878 8.832 0.650 4.716 9.899 Google Maps and CEPII 
Borderij 1,861 0.007 0.083 0.000 1.000 Google Maps and CEPII 
Religionij 1,861 0.028 0.166 0.000 1.000 Organization of Islamic Cooperation 
ln(Populationit) 248 17.319 0.847 14.901 18.516 National Bureau of Statistics of China 
ln(Populationjt) 1,438 15.574 2.116 9.253 21.004 World Bank World Development Indicators 
ln(Areait) 31 12.016 1.225 9.031 14.305 National Bureau of Statistics of China 
ln(Areajt) 298 11.110 2.682 0.693 16.611 World Bank World Development Indicators 
SFIjt 1,325 8.309 6.225 0.000 25.000 Quality of Government database 
ln(TCPj,t-1) 1,426 7.142 2.509 −1.204 13.445 National Bureau of Statistics of China 
Instrumental Variables No. of Observations Mean Standard Deviation Min Max Source 
ln(PrivateFirmit) 186 11.934 1.244 7.312 14.253 National Bureau of Statistics of China 
Dependent VariablesNo. of ObservationsMeanStandard DeviationMinMaxSource
Log of exports 13,605 10.317 3.061 0.000 19.385 Provincial-level yearbooks 
Log of imports 9,065 10.181 3.504 0.000 17.695 Provincial-level yearbooks 
Independent Variables No. of Observations Mean Standard Deviation Min Max Source 
ln(ACFICit) 203 11.328 0.961 7.688 12.682 ACFIC yearbooks 
ln(CBTjt) 1,229 2.558 1.800 0.000 7.974 China Business Times website 
ln(GDPit) 248 19.121 1.013 15.681 20.920 National Bureau of Statistics of China 
ln(GDPjt) 1,438 17.320 2.315 10.368 23.552 World Bank World Development Indicators 
ln(Distanceij) 1,878 8.832 0.650 4.716 9.899 Google Maps and CEPII 
Borderij 1,861 0.007 0.083 0.000 1.000 Google Maps and CEPII 
Religionij 1,861 0.028 0.166 0.000 1.000 Organization of Islamic Cooperation 
ln(Populationit) 248 17.319 0.847 14.901 18.516 National Bureau of Statistics of China 
ln(Populationjt) 1,438 15.574 2.116 9.253 21.004 World Bank World Development Indicators 
ln(Areait) 31 12.016 1.225 9.031 14.305 National Bureau of Statistics of China 
ln(Areajt) 298 11.110 2.682 0.693 16.611 World Bank World Development Indicators 
SFIjt 1,325 8.309 6.225 0.000 25.000 Quality of Government database 
ln(TCPj,t-1) 1,426 7.142 2.509 −1.204 13.445 National Bureau of Statistics of China 
Instrumental Variables No. of Observations Mean Standard Deviation Min Max Source 
ln(PrivateFirmit) 186 11.934 1.244 7.312 14.253 National Bureau of Statistics of China 

ACFIC = All-China Federation of Industry and Commerce, CEPII = Centre d'Etudes Prospectives et d'Informations Internationales.

Notes: The time range of the dependent variables is from 2010 to 2017; those for the independent and instrumental variables, except the log of CBTjt, are from 2009 to 2016. The time range of the log of CBTjt is from 2009 to 2017 because it becomes a dependent variable in section V. The variables measured by currency values are in thousand current United States dollars. Land area is measured in square kilometers.

Source: Authors’ calculations.

Close Modal

or Create an Account

Close Modal
Close Modal