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Table 1. 
Baseline Regression
Variable(1)(2)(3)(4)(5)(6)(7)
Average temperature −0.0105*** −0.0126*** −0.0122*** −0.0125*** −0.0123*** −0.0121*** −0.0124*** 
 (0.0037) (0.0039) (0.0039) (0.0039) (0.0039) (0.0039) (0.0039) 
Average precipitation  −0.0054*** −0.0054** −0.0002 0.0027 −0.0012 0.0113** 
  (0.0020) (0.0024) (0.0032) (0.0050) (0.0025) (0.0055) 
Average temperature × Agricultural countya average    0.0001   0.0000 
    (0.0006)   (0.0006) 
Precipitation × agricultural county average    −0.0075**   −0.0072** 
    (0.0032)   (0.0032) 
Temperature × hot countryb average     0.0012  0.0011 
     (0.0008)  (0.0008) 
Precipitation × hot country average     −0.0093*  −0.0087* 
     (0.0048)  (0.0048) 
Temperature × poor countyc average      0.0025*** 0.0025*** 
      (0.0005) (0.0005) 
Precipitation × poor country      −0.0171*** −0.0171*** 
      (0.0028) (0.0028) 
Average atmospheric pressure   0.0020 0.0020 0.0020 0.0018 0.0018 
   (0.0013) (0.0013) (0.0013) (0.0013) (0.0013) 
Average wind speed   0.0139* 0.0120 0.0144* 0.0095 0.0080 
   (0.0073) (0.0074) (0.0073) (0.0074) (0.0075) 
Total sunshine hours   −0.0000 −0.0000 −0.0000 −0.0000 −0.0000 
   (0.0000) (0.0000) (0.0000) (0.0000) (0.0000) 
Observations 25,363 25,363 25,318 25,318 25,318 25,318 25,318 
R-squared 0.0795 0.0797 0.0801 0.0817 0.0803 0.0817 0.0834 
Variable(1)(2)(3)(4)(5)(6)(7)
Average temperature −0.0105*** −0.0126*** −0.0122*** −0.0125*** −0.0123*** −0.0121*** −0.0124*** 
 (0.0037) (0.0039) (0.0039) (0.0039) (0.0039) (0.0039) (0.0039) 
Average precipitation  −0.0054*** −0.0054** −0.0002 0.0027 −0.0012 0.0113** 
  (0.0020) (0.0024) (0.0032) (0.0050) (0.0025) (0.0055) 
Average temperature × Agricultural countya average    0.0001   0.0000 
    (0.0006)   (0.0006) 
Precipitation × agricultural county average    −0.0075**   −0.0072** 
    (0.0032)   (0.0032) 
Temperature × hot countryb average     0.0012  0.0011 
     (0.0008)  (0.0008) 
Precipitation × hot country average     −0.0093*  −0.0087* 
     (0.0048)  (0.0048) 
Temperature × poor countyc average      0.0025*** 0.0025*** 
      (0.0005) (0.0005) 
Precipitation × poor country      −0.0171*** −0.0171*** 
      (0.0028) (0.0028) 
Average atmospheric pressure   0.0020 0.0020 0.0020 0.0018 0.0018 
   (0.0013) (0.0013) (0.0013) (0.0013) (0.0013) 
Average wind speed   0.0139* 0.0120 0.0144* 0.0095 0.0080 
   (0.0073) (0.0074) (0.0073) (0.0074) (0.0075) 
Total sunshine hours   −0.0000 −0.0000 −0.0000 −0.0000 −0.0000 
   (0.0000) (0.0000) (0.0000) (0.0000) (0.0000) 
Observations 25,363 25,363 25,318 25,318 25,318 25,318 25,318 
R-squared 0.0795 0.0797 0.0801 0.0817 0.0803 0.0817 0.0834 

Notes: The dependent variable for all columns is the growth rate of county-level gross domestic product per capita. All columns include county fixed effects and year fixed effects. Standard errors are clustered in province-by-years and counties. *p < 0.1, **p < 0.05, and ***p < 0.01.

aA county is defined as an agricultural county if its agriculture ratio exceeds the median agriculture ratio of sample counties.

bA county is defined as a hot county if its average temperature from 1996 to 2012 exceeds the median of sample counties.

cA county is defined as a poor county if its average wage and average net income per capita of rural residents from 1996 to 2012 are smaller than the corresponding medians of sample counties.

Sources: Authors’ estimation based on weather data from the China Meteorological Data Sharing Service System and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, and on economic data from the Support System for China Statistics Application.

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